From the ancient Mayans, we are bound not only to leave the city, a calendar, which is said to have predicted the end of the world, but the crystal skull. The most famous of them — finding Mitchell Hedges, or "Skull of Doom."
One of the thirteen skulls gather knowledge other
In April 1927, the daughter of an archaeologist Frederick Mitchell-Hedges, Anna found during excavations of Mayan Lubaantun handmade skull. In 1964, she showed the find art critic Frank Dorlandu, and he gave it to explore in the company "Hewlett-Packard".
It was found that the skull is made from a single crystal glassware. This material is very durable — its nothing but a diamond can not be cut, but the ancient Maya were able to handle it. Polished surface of some pasta, but the traces of metal tools was found. Hollow light and reflects rays of light through a special system of channels and prisms in the back. The lower jaw was attached separately and was mobile.
Experts do not understand how to create a skull. In ancient times, this work had to spend at least 300 years. In addition it has been created, ignoring all laws and regulations. "Damn thing should not have to exist in the world. The one who carved out, had no idea of crystallography and completely ignored the axis of symmetry. It was bound to fall apart when processing "- concluded the expert.
Who, when and why?
Anna Mitchell-Hedges. Perhaps it was in her hands got an amazing find
There are various hypotheses on the appointment of the skull: it can be used for storage and transfer of information, be a tool for divination, a kind of magnifying glass (in its upper sky is masked by a magnifying glass), used for medicinal and magical purposes, and also … the desires. There is also a "technical" hypothesis about the purpose of the artifact: prism cut in the back of his head, like … the working body of the laser device.
Sam Mitchell-Hedges wrote that the skull was used by the priests … as a weapon. With it sends a curse — and the victim soon parted with life. This view is shared by the Russian Kirill Benedictine visionary.
Maya would not have been the creators of the artifact — by Mitchell-Hedges, the age of the finds at least 3600 years. Dorland speculated that the skull did in ancient Egypt and Babylon, and then brought to Central America. Employees of "Hewlett-Packard" determined that the skull is much older, and perhaps its 12 thousand years ago created the Atlanteans. And in surviving manuscripts of the Mayas, say, found the legend of the 13 crystal skulls of the goddess of death, which contain all the knowledge and the wisdom of the world. Skull allegedly brought to Earth by aliens … 36,000 years ago.
In ancient times, as if there was a ritual 13 skulls. At the same time looking at them, dedicated to contemplate the past and the future — until the return of the gods and the end of the world. In addition, they served as a means of communication. And today, there is a saying: if you find 13 ancient skulls and put them in a circle, one of them would be the "main" and will bring together the knowledge of all the rest.
Employees of the German occult organization "Ahnenerbe" hunted skulls around the world, because people believed:
wonderful artifacts will give them power over the world. As we approach the fateful date — December 21, 2012 — the legend of the goddess of death several turtles evolved. Under the new version, the 13 skulls can prevent the apocalypse. Recently a number of articles on that end of the world, they say, is not far off, as the recently damaged one skull — rumored to be the same, the thirteenth …
Eugène Boban — "official archaeologist" at the court of Emperor Maximilian
Crystal skulls are known in Europe from the second half of the XIX century. Europeans learned about them by Eugène Bobanu, "the official archaeologist" at the court of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. After returning from South America to France, he opened an antique shop in Paris. It exhibited products "pre-Columbian", including a skull made of crystal, first small, then — bigger and bigger.
In 1878, Boban acquired skull desyatisantimetrovoy height with a drilled hole in it. According to rumors, it was found in Guatemala. In fact, an art dealer bought it from a French anthropologist Alphonse Pinarta. Now artifact is stored in one of the museums of Paris and named after the Aztec god of death Miktlantekutli.
The second generation of crystal skulls — a life-size, and without holes. The most famous of them is kept in the British Museum. It is believed that it was discovered in 1889 by one of the soldiers of the Emperor Maximilian, but in fact the skull in 1881 exhibited in the shop Bob. He has positioned it as a unique masterpiece of lapidary technology, but was not able to sell in 1885 and took with him to Mexico, and in a year — in New York. There artifact acquired jeweler Tiffany & Co., Where in 1898 he moved to the collection of the British Museum.
In the twentieth century the skull found in Central and South America, Asia and Europe. Some are not made of crystal, and obsidian, rose quartz, jade … One of them — the "Darth Vader" ("Black Lord") — served as the model for the character of "Star Wars."
In Russia, the crystal skulls found none. But the curious folk tales. For example, how Vasilisa received a gift from Baba Yaga's skull with eyes beaming with which beauty and burned their abusers. Noticeable similarity to the "Skull of Doom" — the ancient "laser." There is a crystal skull found recently. In 2011, Bavaria was found "skull Himmler." That dropped him once photographers that believe, can lead to disastrous consequences. However, it did not last. A little later, found another — so-called "skull Bode."
The exact number of crystal artifacts in the world is difficult to determine. However it is now clear that there are more than 13: by some accounts — 21, on the other — even 49. But are all of them real?
Debunk the legend
The first question the researchers called a skull in the British Museum. It turned out that it was made from a Brazilian crystal. After examination it found traces of jewelry wheels and other tools of the XIX century. And Paris was a fake skull Miktlantekutli. In the Aztec and Mayan artifacts to "transform" all the same Eugène Boban.
Perhaps some "early Skull" really Mexican — created by the order for the celebration of the Day of the Dead. However, most of them made in Europe — most likely in Germany, where in XIX century imported Brazilian crystal. Sinister artifacts meet European representation of Indians, with their bloody rites and "mystical rituals", and this benefited scam. However Bobanu was far from Anna Mitchell-Hedges … The Russian Specialist Mayan epigraphy DD Belyaev says: FA Mitchell-Hedges was never a famous archaeologist. Lubaantun not opened it, and his friend Thomas Gunn. In 1924, Gunn again visited the city. Him — wander through the ruins — had come "traveler and writer," Mitchell-Hedges. And in a year when his daughter was "found" skull Lubaantune it did not exist.
"Skull of Doom" actually appeared in the early 1930s. In 1933 it was bought by a London art dealer Sidney Barney products, which in 1943 sold it to the Mitchell-Hedges at the auction "Sotheby's". Barney is a letter of 1933, in which he mentioned the crystal skull. Mitchell-Hedges, however, did not write about the discovery until 1950. A few lines of it contains the book "My girlfriend danger" (1954) — it is there for the first time an artifact called the "Skull of Doom."
Hedges said that the reason is silent on how the skull ended up with him. The story of his discovery composed Anna, "co-author" for scam Frank Dorland expounded a blatantly legend of his supernatural properties. When the true facts have emerged, the woman did not lose her, explained: that the father gave the artifact to his friend Sidney Barney deposited, and he knows why auctioned. Mitchell-Hedges had to buy their own property.
Anna years showed an artifact for the money and are very reluctant to give it into the hands of serious researchers.
Once critic R. Distelberger and archaeologist H. Hammond noticed that the holes in the lower jaw has come a metal drill bit, it stopped showing skull scientist.
Examination of "Skull of Doom" under the scanning electron microscope took place only three years after Anna's death, in May 2010. It turned out that the "mystical artifact" was created not so long ago by modern lapidary tools. Make it relatively easy. Czech Master Dave Shlehta in 1984 and gave machined like the Museum of Records and Curiosities of Pelgrzhimova. Other craftsmen are not so squeamish …
Stories about the wonderful properties of the skull — also possibly part of a hoax. Legend of the turtle goddess of death — fiction. Literal translation of the Mayan manuscripts engaged Yuri Knorozov, but nothing like they have not found. However, the skull and Maya is still connected.
In the XVII century Mayan Cozumel has become a haven pirates of the Caribbean. It was an ancient abandoned temple of the goddess, which was decorated skulls and crossbones. That pirates from Cozumel first to raise the flag, who later became famous. Maya is not a symbol of the Crystal Skull, and the "Jolly Roger" — the flag of the pirates. That's the smile of the story …