In 2012, it became clear that in the years 774-775 BC. e. Earth survived a huge temporary increase in gamma radiation. The question of his nature aroused with serious disputes. Version of the supernova was almost immediately rejected: for such gamma radiation it would have to be a month arhividimoy in Earth's sky. Neither the Chinese astronomers or other representatives of the peoples of written no such notice can not remember, did not manage.
The probability of certain events and did very little. Recently, however, it has been suggested that the flash overrated. But the Sun, although close to its limits, it could give rise to such a superoutburst – 20 times stronger than in 1859. However, other scientists have disputed the findings, pointing out not only the high level of carbon-14 in the Japanese cedar, and beryllium-10 in polar ice, and it is not possible to talk about revaluation's 774-775-st.
|According to modern concepts, the merging black holes will not be instantaneous, and around one of them produced a powerful luminous accretion disk. (Photo David A. Aguilar, CfA.)|
Now Ralph Nyuhauzer of the Institute of Astronomy at Jena University. Friedrich Schiller (Germany) and his colleagues put forward another hypothesis. "Peering" in the emission spectra, the researchers found that those correspond to the hypothetical situation of two merging black holes (BH) at a relatively short distance from the Earth. Although the word "small" in this case is used by astronomers, and then 12.3 thousand light years, it should be noted that the distance is really "a cheap". Had everything in just a few times closer – and the consequences of a sharp rise in the level of gamma radiation would be very unpleasant character. If in 774-775 years, contrary to the expectations of astronomers was not recorded any hint of crop failure or famine, is ten times more powerful flash could well cause significant problems for many of the higher animals of the Earth – including, of course, people.
However, addressing such a gamma-ray burst is to merge several conditional BH: converge when two neutron stars or two white dwarfs, gamma-ray burst may also occur, but in the case of two black holes the energy of such an event can be maximized. While the actual frequency of such events in the Galaxy is not clear and is estimated at just 10 000-1 000 000 years.
According to Mr. Nyuhauzera, it is unlikely that the Earth would see something like this again so close, but if it happened, the consequences would be sad: the same transistor microelectronics, dressed modern life, is highly vulnerable to gamma radiation. But this is just the beginning, because the temporary cataclysm would destroy the ozone layer, confident scientist. By the way, a number of his colleagues, however, believe that these events can occur near the Earth more frequently, and Ordovician-Silurian extinction, which killed just superficial marine organisms due to something very similar.
The main reason for criticism of the conception is clear: this is an extreme rarity (by modern astronomical views) events such as the merger of two black holes. Expected and what Adrian Melot, author of the hypothesis of anomalous solar flare in the 774-775-m, noted that the likelihood of such a merger of 10 thousand times smaller than the solar flare.
However, with all the statistical correctness (flashes, certainly more frequent event), the scientist can not explain the intensity of the incident. And it is not thinking of such analysis has not yet been subjected to variations, as the stars of Wolf – Rayet stars, can destroy the ozone layer of the Earth in 40 seconds …
The report on the study published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Prepared according to the Royal Astronomical Society.