Allegedly on the way to the 13th kilometer instruments recorded a strange noise coming from the bowels of the planet — yellow newspapers unanimously claimed that since sound can only cries of sinners from hell. A few seconds after the terrible explosion of sound …
Kola ultradeep sectional
Distant galaxies studied humanity far better than what is in the earth's crust in some few kilometers from us. Kola Superdeep — original telescope into the mysterious inner world of the planet.
Since the beginning of XX century it was believed that the Earth is composed of the crust, mantle and core. But no one really could not tell where one ends and the next layer. Scientists do not even know of what, in fact, these layers are composed. Even some 40 years ago, they were confident that the granite layer begins at a depth of 50 meters and extends to three miles, and then go basalts. Meet the expected mantle at a depth of 15-18 km. The reality was quite different. While in school textbooks still write that the Earth is made up of three layers, the scientists from the Kola Superdeep proved that this is not the case.
Projects journey into the depths of the Earth began in the early 60's in several countries. Tried to drill wells in areas where the crust had to be more subtle — the aim was to reach the mantle. For example, Americans were drilled near the island of Maui, Hawaii, where, according to seismic studies, ancient rocks go under the ocean floor and the mantle is at a depth of five kilometers under 4kilometrovoy water column. Alas, no ocean drilling deeper than 3 miles if at all. In general, almost all projects ultradeep wells mysteriously ended in 3kilometrovoy depth. It was at this time with the Boers began to be something strange: they fall into unexpected superhot area, they seemed a bit off unseen monster. Deeper than 3 kilometers broke only 5 wells, 4 of them — Soviet. Only Kola ultradeep was to overcome a 7 kilometers.
Initial national project also underwater drilling — in the Caspian Sea or Lake Baikal. But in 1963, the scientist Nikolay Timofeev Burovik persuaded the State Committee on Science and Technology of the USSR is that you need to create a well on the continent. While drilling have much longer, he said, the well will be much more valuable from a scientific point of view, because it is in the thickness of the continental plates in prehistoric times, there were the most significant movements of terrestrial rocks. Drilling point chosen on the Kola Peninsula is no accident. The peninsula is located on the so-called Baltic Shield, which is composed of the oldest breeds known to man.
Many kilometers section of the shield layers — a visual history of the world for the last three billion years.
Appearance Kola drill can disappoint the layman. The well is not like mine, that draws us to the imagination. No runs underground into the thick leaves only the drill bit with a diameter greater than 20 centimeters. Imaginary Kola super-deep well looks like a very thin needle, piercing the earth's strata. Bur with numerous sensors on the end brand, is raised and lowered in a few days. Faster not: durable composite cable can end under its own weight.
What's going on in the depths, is not known. Ambient temperature, noise, and other parameters are passed up to the minute delay. However, drillers say that even a dungeon can contact outright frightening. Sounds coming from the bottom, and really like the shrieks and howls. Add to this a long list of failures, pursuing Kola ultradeep, when it reached a depth of 10 kilometers. Double drill fetched fused, although the temperature from which it may melt, compared with the surface temperature of the sun. Once the rope as if pulled from the bottom and broke off. Subsequently, when drilled in the same location as the cable remains was found. What caused this and many other accidents, still remains a mystery. However, they were not the cause of the stop drilling depths of the Baltic Shield.
"We have the deepest hole in the world — so you have to use" — bitterly exclaims permanent director of the Research and Production Center "Kola ultradeep" David Huberman. In the first 30 years of the Kola ultradeep Soviet and then Russian scientists have broken a depth of 12,262 meters. But from 1995 drilling terminated: there was nobody to finance the project. The amount allocated to the scientific programs of UNESCO, only enough to maintain the drilling station in operation and the study of rock samples previously retrieved.
Huberman regretfully recalls how scientific discoveries took place at the Kola super-deep. Literally every inch was a revelation. The well has shown that almost all our previous knowledge of the structure of the crust is incorrect. It turned out that the Earth is not like a layer cake. "Up to four kilometers all went according to the theory, and then the end of the world began," — says Huberman. Theorists have promised that the shield temperature remain relatively low to a depth of at least 15 kilometers. Accordingly, the well will be dug almost 20 kilometers, just before the mantle. But on a 5 km surrounding temperature got over 700C, the seven — for the 1200C, and at a depth of 12 roasted stronger 2200C — 1000C for higher predicted. Kola drillers questioned the theory of layered structure of the Earth's crust — at least in the range of up to 12 262 meters. In school we are taught that there are younger rocks, granites, basalts, mantle and core. But granites were on the 3 km lower than expected. More had to be basalt. They never found it. All drilling was in the granite layer. Extremely urgent opening it, because the theory of layered structure of the earth connected with all our ideas about the origin and distribution of mineral resources.
Another surprise: life on Earth arose, it appears, for 1.5 billion years earlier than anticipated. At depths where it was thought that there was no organic matter, found 14 species of fossilized microbes — the age of the deep layers exceeded 2.8 billion years. At still greater depths, where there is no sediment appeared in huge methane concentrations. This is completely and utterly destroyed the theory of biological origin of hydrocarbons, such as oil and gas.
There were almost fantastic sensation. When in the late '70s, the Soviet automatic space station brought to Earth 124 grams of lunar soil, Kola Science Center researchers have found that it is like two peas similar to the sample from a depth of 3 kilometers. Also there was a hypothesis that the moon broke away from the Kola Peninsula. Now look where. By the way, the Americans, who were brought from the moon, half a ton of ground, so anything sensible with it and did not. Placed in sealed containers and left for research for future generations.
In the history of the Kola Superdeep not without mystery. Officially, as already mentioned, the well has stopped because of lack of funds. Coincidence or not — but it is in 1995 in the depths of the mine, a powerful explosion of unknown nature. For residents of the Polar broke Finnish newspaper journalists — and the world has shaken off from the story of the planet's interior demon.
"When I was about this mysterious stories began to ask to UNESCO, I do not know what to say. On the one hand, it's bullshit. On the other — I, as an honest scientist, could not say that I know what it is that we have been. Was recorded very strange noise, then there was an explosion … A few days later nothing at the same depth not found "- says Academician David Huberman.
Quite unexpectedly confirmed predictions of Alexei Tolstoy's novel "The Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin". At a depth of more than 9.5 kilometers found a real storehouse of various minerals, particularly gold. Real olivine layer brilliantly predicted writer. Gold there 78 grams per tonne. By the way, commercial production is possible at a concentration of 34 grams per tonne. Perhaps in the not too distant future, mankind will be able to take advantage of this wealth.