As the years passed, adding in the century and the millennium. Europeans considered rare in a desert land only strange hills lit merciless sun. But, apparently, it is time to learn about completely forgotten past. In 1869, a French archaeologist Jules Oppert found cuneiform inscriptions of the ancient kingdom, the ruler of which — Sargon — called himself the king of Sumer and Akkad, and offered to call the people of the Sumerians, who owned Mesopotamia, land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, long before the rise of Assyria and Babylon.
At the time no one knew the word "Sumer." Its existence has long been forgotten. Referred to in the Bible land of Shinar remained unexplained. And in the land rested no one knows the masterpieces of ancient worship and admiration of the people and the objects of their everyday life.
Lucky for archaeologists was the fourth expedition to excavate one of the oldest cities of Sumer — Nippur
— In 1889, which was led by Professor University of Pennsylvania (USA) H. Hilpreht. Studying stage
Ziggurat (temple tower), he found a library with more than 20,000 cuneiform tablets. This mass
documents was a revelation to those who study them. Explore them all at once to the extent possible. However, even the translation of some of them gave an unprecedented set of monuments Sumerian literature, religious writings and commercial documents.
Under the protection of the powers
A fragment of the stele with inscriptions undeciphered
Difficulties in the work of researchers lacked. Cholera, malaria, and dust storms. The entire area was engulfed in war. Unruly, wild and untamed tribes were in a state of bloody feudal strife: strife, their feud with irregular forces and the Ottoman Empire. There were constant threats of attacks of nomads, attempts to get to the weapons of the expedition and theft. There were cases of shootings and looting expedition property.
In order to somehow protect their lives, archaeologists had to scare superstitious people of his "magical powers." Launch rockets and fireworks terrified of not only women and children, who fled with wild cries of asylum seekers, but also men. Scientists have unearthed a giant human head alabaster locals plunged into horror and confusion. What has not happened, but as they say, God spared archaeologists. Great strides have P. Botha and R. Koldewey, O. Layard and L. Woolley. Found ancient Nineveh — a stronghold of the mighty and the capital of the Assyrian kings mentioned in the Bible, and Babylon, who in the days of the greatest of all the forgotten glory of Sumer was an obscure village. Only when Hammurabi in XVIII century BC. e. Babylon became rattle the entire ancient world. It is not clear where it came from cuneiform tablet Sargon ancient times. Found bilingual — inscriptions in both languages, which allowed deciphering ancient texts left at an unknown earlier language. Raking centuries of debris and dirt shoveled thousands of cubic meters of earth by hundreds of diggers, the archaeologists discovered a whole layer of forgotten history.
From the darkness of the ages
About once a sensational excavation of Ur, the birthplace of the biblical Abraham, our newspaper wrote in spring 2011
in the article "The Sumerian chronicles." It was about the fabulous wealth of its forgotten kings, in comparison with which the famous Tutankhamun — just poor. However, archaeologists came across and completely looted burial where looters have not spared even the royal remains.
Were found ruins of ancient palaces and temples, the giant statues of winged bulls and lions with a human head and the wonderful bas gods, sphinxes and winged creatures. The battle scenes of the siege and battles depicted in chariots made with great skill and rich ornamentation.
Why not just preserved ancient walls: pictures of soldiers, from head to toe dressed in armor, with pointed
helmets on their heads and bows, pictures of women, begging for mercy and tearing my hair out with grief, human figures with coiffed hair and curly beard in the richly dressed, adorned not lose color with embroidery and tassels; bricks with stamps of names of unknown Kings and one with the name of the semi-mythical Naram-Sin (about 3750 BC. Oe.).
Also found terracotta figurines of bearded gods with weapons and other devices in the hands and toys in the form of horses and horsemen, elephants and monkeys, sheep, dogs and birds. Were found spearheads and knives, coins, necklaces, bracelets, earrings, rings, buckles, brass pins and memorabilia from agate, turquoise, malachite and lapis lazuli, dishes and cups with stored ancient legends, often covered with images of the terrible demons, and more more.
Reconstruction of the headdress and necklace Sumerian women
Found and deciphered the Sumerian texts allowed to look into the antediluvian history and learn about the origin of Homo sapiens arrival of aliens from the planet Nibiru (Nephilim) and their life on earth. The read documents speak of how they impart knowledge to people, taught them crafts and created the ancient civilization. There are mentions of two visits to Earth Anu — the ruler of Nibiru, the dynasty of rulers and antediluvian first king of Sumer after the flood Mesannepadda.
Affects high level of knowledge of the Sumerians, especially in astronomy, mathematics, and metallurgy. Only copper they exist 23 species. With the death of civilization many skills have been lost, but the legacy of the Sumerians is present in our lives so far. We know the 12 signs of the zodiac and the twelve months of the year, use the clock with 60 seconds and minutes, and divide the circle into 360 degrees.
Sumerian texts it possible to understand many inexplicable place in biblical history and the actions of its characters. Later, Zecharia Sitchin wrote a history of lost kingdoms and civilizations, and Alan Alford was the chronology of gods and men. Was excavated temple at Nippur — religious center of Sumer, and it became clear that an important role in the lives of people in the past played the cult of the god Bel, as evidenced by the bulk of the ruins, and many cuneiform literature.
Temple library points to the existence of a large class of priests and clerics.
Sumerian priest helped …
However, once the information to the scientists arrived mysteriously. Hilpreht after the expedition finished a book about the excavation and scientific results and had to give her publisher the next day. In it, he referred to the two fragments of agate, found during work. Archaeologist could not read drevneshumerskie inscriptions on them. He was sitting in his office late into the evening, trying to decipher the text book and give a finished look.
Dozed off (if it was a dream, and not something else in an altered state of consciousness), the scientists saw next to a man in the Sumerian priestly garb. Surprised archaeologist stood up, but not out of the chair, and on the stone steps, which for some reason he was. He was not even surprised that the priest told him, in English: "Follow me! I'll help you. " They walked down the street past a few massive buildings and entered the dimly lit room next, which seemed even more. "Where are we?" — Asked Hilpreht. "In Nippur, between the Tigris and Euphrates. We are the temple of Bel, the father of the gods, "- said the priest.
During excavations archaeologists did not find the treasure — a room, which must be at the church, and the scientist asked her about her escort. That led him to a small room in the back corner of the church. There's a wooden chest were several pieces of agate, including Hilpreht found two fragments, which he could not decipher.
Priest explained that it was part of the cylinder, the church donated Kurigalzu, ruler of the Kassites. Of it would
make ear ornaments statue of the god. At a cutting one piece split. Inscriptions on the fragments
scientist who could not read, were part of the text. At the request of the archaeologist priest read him this inscription.
Waking up (or wake up), Hilpreht wrote down what he said to the priest. Deciphering the inscriptions relating to
very distant past, has been recognized by others flawless. Was accurate and said the location of the Sumerian priest in the temple treasury, soon found by archaeologists. And thousands of unread cuneiform tablets yet to be explored, and no one knows what kind of information they bring to humanity.