Author: Andrew Kozlowski
Date of songwriting: December 2008
Material posted with the permission of the author.
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TYPES OF KNIVES AND THEIR USE
In the life of every chef there are only two
the really important decisions: the sensible choice
Assistant and buying knives
When you are thinking about how many knives you need in the kitchen, you need to start with three. You can do two if you're a man or a lowly low on money. Of the three required two knives — one large and one small. Typically, this chef (Chef's) or santoku (Santoku), and peeler (paring, peeling, petty). With the third knife given the choice. If you eat a lot of fish, it will be a fillet knife, if you have a lot of grain in the diet, then you get the bread. If you prefer vegetables and are a fan of Asian cuisine, then the best choice would be the Chinese Cleaver. Many people prefer and a good slicer.
The main thing to start. And as needed, you can purchase everything you need, in accordance with its own preferences and budget. The main blade is the boss, and it must be reversed much of the attention, and spent most of the budget. So, if you have a budget of 4-5 thousand dollars, you should buy only two — the big head and small, and from 3 to 4,500 rubles should be spent on the boss. It is not only the largest knife in the kitchen, this is the most important tools in the kitchen.
As for me, I'm not a very big supporter of buying a set of knives, as a rule, some of them (sometimes almost half) is rarely used or not used at all. I think that as a good set of kitchen interior (see William Henry, serie «Maestro» in the review), or a gift.
CHEF's, Chef, GYUTOU (GYUTO)
CHEF's knives (sometimes you can hear the outdated FRENCH knives), CHEF.
Blade length ranges from 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) or more. The blade is shorter than 8 inches (20 cm) is not very convenient for a lot of work, and the blade of more than 30 cm should be getting used to and have the dimensions Relevant to the table and cutting boards (well, kitchens, of course). Standard dimensions of European chief — 6-8-10-12 inches (15-20-25-30 cm). Gyutou, the Japanese equivalent of the European boss is 180mm, 210mm, 240mm, 270mm and 300mm. In contrast to the European knives, the Japanese system metric (or their own, they are measuring the length of the blade to the SUN, 1 sun = 3.037 cm). Of European manufacturers only makes Messermeister 9 inch (23 cm) blades. From my point of view, the optimal length is 8 to 10 inches (20 — 25cm). Professionals prefer longer — 10 to 12 inches (270 — 300 mm) and larger, and the usual kitchen great choice and 8 inch (200 — 210 mm) blades.
With increasing length, typically increases, the width of the blade. A width is a very useful thing — first, it is more convenient (smoother) cut some of the products, and secondly, you can use a spatula to transfer the cut in kastyulyu. We should not forget that CHEF's not only cutting tool. His butt can be used to break the shells of crabs and beating the meat, and a side to crush the garlic.
Usually gyutou has sharpened the order of 15 degrees, and the European boss of 22 to 26 degrees on each side.
Butt, a relatively thick at the handle, tapering to not only cutting edge, but also forward to the tip, and is called «distal taper». This is most clearly seen in the last century forged knives and some samples G.Prokopenkova.
Such a system allows the blade to use every part of it (the middle, the tip and the heel) with maximum convenience: a thin sharp tip allows precise work (like cutting the fillets and shallots), heavy fall on the same work the heel. Here the most thick blade and wide, and you can make significant efforts without damaging the knife. It has the advantage of the German model — thick, heavy German chef is better suited to razrubaniya chicken bones than its French counterpart, and certainly better than a light thin guytou.
But most still have to work on all the cutting edge, and here it is necessary to note the differences in the shape of the blade of German, French and Japanese knives.
Above — French Sabater, in the center of German Zwilling JA Henckels, lower-Japanese Ryusen Blazen.
Here is a slightly simplified drawings of these knives
It is clear that the Germans had a convex middle part («belly» — «tummy"), the Frenchman has a more direct line between the tip and the heel. This blade is great for classic French cuisine. Japanese guytou somewhere in the middle, maybe a little closer to the French style.
The following table compares some of the approximately equally sized models by weight
The total length of the knife, mm
Blade length, mm
|F.Dick events in 1905 (Germany)|
|Sabatier Lion (France)|
|Murray Carter (USA)|
|Al Mar (Japan)|
So, CHEF's — a multi-purpose kitchen knife essentials. Has a broad, solid blade from 15 to 36 cm
This knife allows you to:
-using the HEEL, crumbled herbs, onions, garlic, etc.
-Using the TIP, chopped leeks, celery, onions and vegetables.
- using the middle part, cut large vegetables (cabbage, whole celery root, turnips, etc. You can also chop the meat and poultry.
- using the flat of the blade, crush the garlic
Most of the work performed by this knife falls on the shredder, and to her it is best suited.
(Note that it is on the shredder goes most of the time the cook in the restaurant — it is with her, usually starts his working day)
The best choice
F.Dick Chef Premier Plus 22cm
F.Dick Chef Serie 1905 21cm
F.Dick Serie 1778
G.Prokopenkov Chef 21cm
Hattori Gyutou 270 mm
Murray Carter Gyutoy 330 mm, 210 mm
Misono UX10 Gyutou 270 mm
Fujiwara Kanefusa Gyutou 240 mm
Hiromoto AS Gyutou 210 mm
Messermeister Meridian Elit Chef 23cm
Sinichi Watanabe Kintaro-Ame Gyutou 240 mm
Hattori FH Gyutou 240 mm
Wusthof Ikon Chef 20 cm
SANTOKU, Santoku (Japanese Chef, ORIENTAL COOK's)
Sometimes called santoku Wabocho (Murray Carter).
I do not know of any other knife that would cause so much controversy — from the "I love my santoku, I'm doing it in the kitchen almost all the work, it's the good and the right knife for the kitchen," until a definitive rejection. Do not like the santoku professional chefs (with some exceptions). The argument is roughly as follows — "too short, too thin, and there is no work to it (santoku) did better than my guyto (chief)." True, there is a category of people who take santoku unconditionally (in America). This — housewives. Here, however, we must pay tribute to the television propaganda — in America is constantly cooking show with leading Rachel Ray, which uses to represent the santoku (Recently, the Australian company FURI started making knives with the same name — Rachel Ray santoku).
Such a polarity of opinion, from my point of view, is explained as follows:
all Japanese kitchen knives "incarcerated" under certain, very narrow task (more than guyto, which was made in Europe and America as a kind of Chef's) and, as a rule, are designed for professionals. In Japan, more than 200 kinds of knives, but only two are specifically designed and manufactured as knives for home cooking (which is primarily determined by the small size of the actual cuisines as well as cutting boards). Equally important is the fact that the kitchen is no mass production.
One NAKIRI — knife for vegetables, and the first cutting, and the second — SANTOKU, which is designed as a multi-purpose knife. And it's wonderful home cooking knives. Different santoku and Nakeer tip (see photo below) /
«Santoku» can be translated as "the knife three virtues (or virtues)» — «knife of three virtues». However, what is really meant by these merit or virtue, we can only guess. There are versions (like a boss) — the tip — for precision work, the heel — for heavy, the entire blade for basic (cut), the other version suggests that the three virtues it is cutting, cutting and grinding (slicing, chopping, mincing ) in a single blade, and the third explains the three virtues as an opportunity to cook fish, vegetables and meat. The latter seems the most plausible.
Are available with traditional Japanese hilts
Sinichi Watanabe. Nakiri and Santoku
Kazuyuki Tanaka, Nakiri and Santoku
No wonder santoku under the name «oriental cook's, Japanisches Kochmesser» included in their line of all the famous European manufacturers — from German (Wusthof, Henckels), French (Sabatier) to Spanish (Arcos). Another thing is that a decent santoku produces only Wusthof, good — Sabatier («K», «Lion», «Diamant», «Elefant»), while the santoku, produced Zwilling JAHenkels (series «Twin cuisine») of this santoku was only general appearance.
Wusthof Ikon Santoku
Santoku, as Nakiri, has a wide blade (santoku 40-50 mm, 50-60 mm Nakeer), allowing you to use them as a spatula for collection and transfer of products, a blade length of 160-180 mm, hills practically reduced to zero, so that sharpening angle is almost the same as the angle of descent and the information is 4-6 degrees in Nakiri and 6-10 (sometimes up to 15) degrees from Santoku, which in general depends on the purpose knives.
Butt: the top — santoku, lower — Nakeer
In this photo Nakeer above santoku below
Nakiri upper blade has a length of 120 mm, medium — 150 mm, bottom — 180 mm. Master Sinichi Watanabe. The optimal size from my point of view — 180 mm
Japanese knives are made of solid steel (hardening of more than 60 HRC), which allows them to have the corners of sharpening. The German Henkels (series Twin cuisine) has a thickness of 0.5 mm RK (Wusthof — 0.3 mm, Arcos — 0.4 mm) and a sharpening angle of about 25 degrees, which is more natural for mild steel, but it turns out RESULT completely different!
From top to bottom: Zwilling JAHenckels, Arcos, Wusthof
To give a comparison photo of Japanese. From top to bottom: Fujiwara, Hiromoto AS, Hiromoto G3, Tojiro DP
A lot of resources (blade conference, various studies, etc.) is recommended as the first santoku knife on the acquisition of knives in the kitchen.
A question often asked if they need Nakiri, if there is a santoku. To work with vegetables Nakiri slightly better (less edge angle), but in general to work with vegetables like knives. But in a professional kitchen, and if there is Gyutou Nakiri, in the opinion of the majority, there is no need for a santoku.
So, with the kitchen santoku, you can:
- to cut and slice meat, poultry and fish
- Mince herbs
- chop vegetables
- cook crabs
- Cut bread
- With cutting vegetables better able Nakeer, but from santoku you do not get too frustrated.
The best choice
Hattori KD, KF, HD
PARING, PEELING, SHEEP FOOT, BIRD's BEAK, PETTY
All of these names refer to the small knives that are vital in the kitchen (try the chef or santoku peel the potatoes!). In the Russian common name for small cooking knives is not (maybe because for a long time in Russia was considered the smallest korenchaty which had a blade length 14 — 18 cm).
In Europe, there is quite a lot of variety. In addition to these are sometimes referred to fluting, trimming, potato, curved, but rarely.
PARING, PEELING means in English the same — shoot, cut off the crust, peel, clean, clean. Lightweight, comfortable, sharp knife with a short blade rigid length of 5 to 10 cm Great for those jobs where big boss will look awkward (different types of delicate work — cleaning the potatoes, cut the potato buds, clean citrus roots, cleaned and sliced apples, pears, etc.).
Classic Paring knife like a smaller version of the boss
But often there are other forms of blades, such as SHEEP FOOT (like a small santoku).
This straight blade knife, and, in some cases, it gives a slight advantage (say, if you clean vegetables, keeping them in hand) But if you use a cutting board, then the classic, probably more suitable.
There is a specific form of the knife under the name «BIRD's BEAK» or «TOURNE knife», that in Russian can be had called "the claw."
This blade has a rounded edge and is used when cleaning round objects (potato, apple, orange). Often used in the preparation of various presentations.
French TOURNE (English turn) is translated as "Pridacha elegant appearance, turning, rotate, rotate." Knife interesting but not vital. Although it should be noted that in some restaurants, adhering to the "old school", usually considered the ability to own such a knife as a kind of indicator of cooking art. Often this knife out and enjoy the food — for example, for opening boxes.
In Japan, small knives called «PETTY» (from the French «petit» — small). It can have longer blade (150 mm, although there are 60 and -70 millimeters.
Japanese knives, as always, have a higher hardness and a lower angle of sharpening. They work more pleasant, but I would advise European classics — still very much wanted to use a knife, not realizing what you're doing (eg smear butter, scraping the tip of the knife on the nipple, etc.)
So what experience shows that these knives for the simpler and cheaper — the better. Of course, for yourself, a loved one, you can buy this too:
Kikuichi Monji Honyaki Petty
Kikuichi Monji Hunmatuhaisu
It's all enough Drogo knives and have to think hard for what you get them.
From my point of view the best choice:
Wusthof, Sabatier (top photo)
Unpretentious but great:
Opinel (from Stainless steel as well as from Carbon steel)
Kikuichi Monji 10A series
Rysen serie Blazen (my most favorite)
This is probably not a knife and hatchet. Its roots come from China, which is known as TZAY to (CAI DOU). In Japan, the revised Japanese masters called CHUKKA BOCHO.
Despite the fact that the CHINESE CLEAVER in shape is very reminiscent of a European butcher's ax, it is designed for a completely different works. It has a large heavy blade strong rectangular shape and a length of 19 to 22 cm, a width of 9 cm at -11 thickness from 2 to 6 mm and weight of 300 to 800 grams. Equipped with a strong short handle and is a versatile universal kitchen knife for a variety of jobs. Its heavy and large blade wonderful cope with butchering chickens and other poultry, chopping and slicing meats, vegetables and herbs. We can distinguish three basic types — fine, medium and heavy, each designed for a specific job. Thin is used similarly santoku and Nakeer — for slicing and chopping vegetables and meat; Average performs work that can not afford the fine — Poultry and fish, it can be compared with deboy. Well, hard to get all the "heavy" work — for example, Clearing the frozen foods.
At any kitchen CHINESE CLEAVER is a direct competitor of a large European boss, and if you master the technique and love of them, they will definitely win for the hatchet.
Despite the fact that the technique works is different from the technique of the chief, once having mastered the technique of Chinese cleaver, you will realize that this is a very good tool. Do not forget that for all his originality Chinese cuisine dates back several thousand years of kitchen experimentation, and reaching great heights in this art, it came to almost one knife-TZAY UP (aka Chinese cleaver, Chukka bocho), in contrast to the dozens of species in Hundreds in Europe and Japan.
The most often used features mean chukka bocho: length of about 22 cm, width 10 cm, thickness of 4 mm and a weight of about 500 grams. There is present in every Chinese restaurant. There are options for both single-sided and double-sided sharpening. Made both of Carbon steel, and of Stainless steel. With experience, becoming one of the most popular and commonly used knives in the kitchen. I always use it when necessary to make minced meat — is a much tastier than using a meat grinder, since the meat is cut, not gags.
Butt blade is used for beating and crushing products, the plane — for their crushing and carrying a wok or pan. The handle can be used as a pestle.
The best choice
SLICER, CARVING, gourmet knife, Sujihiki
Slice — in the English language: a thin layer of something, slice, slice.
Long and generally narrow blade with rigid or slightly flexible blade length from 9 to 18 inches (20-45 cm).
The shape of the blade slicer could be a classic
or like this, which is called the Yatagan
The real value of blade shape has not — it's your personal choice.
Long blade allows you to make a clean cut in a single movement, which is very important in a beautiful and fast cutting, especially when you are working with a ready meat.
Knife for cutting large pieces of grilled meat (roast beef) is CARVING, generally has a blade length 9 inches (23 cm) and usually come bundled with a special plug. Typically, the roast beef is cut at a table in front of the guests with a knife and fork, and therefore this presentation knife try to make more quality, beautiful and, of course, more expensive.
Japanese equivalent of the European slicer called
For the same purpose can be used YANAGIBU (Yanagiba), but it has a one-sided grinding and requires some skill at using it.
Sometimes among European knives can be found the name of the HAM (Vetchinnikov). This blade has a slightly flexible long narrow or wide blade about 10 inches (25 cm), often rounded at the end. It is used for cutting thin slices from a large piece of cooked meat — ham or ham.
Among all slicers diamond knife gastronomic stands GK Prokopenkova
This knife has a unique blade system that allows you to use it not only for slicing and cutting-plastovaniya, but also as a fillet tool. (Note that G.K.Prokopenkov simply reproduced the knife that did in the early 20th century masters such as Zav'yalov, Ivanov, Kondrashov — and they had knives and more international awards than their counterparts from the city of Solingen. Now than G.K.Prokopenkova these knives nobody does — it can be done only by free forging, at a very high labor costs and at the limit of profitability). Knife of exceptional quality, sharpness and ease of operation.
Not inferior in quality and elegance fileyka the same master
SALMON — Salmon knife, he correctly attributed to FILLET — filleting knives, which are very flexible (flexible), a long narrow blade up to 12 inches (30 cm).
SALMON is designed for cutting large fish (salmon) very thin slices.
If the slicer is used for slicing bacon, sausages, smoked sturgeon, already cooked (fried) meat, etc., then fillet knife is indispensable where you must use its flexibility: in the first place when cutting the fish when it is necessary to slide the knife along the skin and rib bones, but it is also convenient and cutting, for example, saddle of lamb, when it is necessary to cut down the spine to the ribs.
Simple, but very good fileynik
Wusthof Ikon Fillet
In addition to those mentioned above, are noteworthy:
Wusthof Ikon Slicer
Misono UX 10 Sujihiki
Some knives have so-called «Air pockets»-air pockets that protect the cut pieces of food from sticking to the blade. This type of blade is called «GRANTON EDGE». Sami ovals on the blade called «Kullens». One of the leading manufacturers of a Western-style knives in Japan, «Glestain», produces almost all of his knives with such blades. You can discuss, aesthetically pleasing or not, but the fact that it works.
In the professional kitchen while mass production slicers are used less and less frequently, giving the field of slice machines.
BREAD, BREAD, Pan kiru knife
Maximum long, usually sereytorny (ie the teeth along the cutting edge) knife.
This knife is a German company «GUDE» is considered one of the best of its kind. The company «Gude» presents it as the first example of sereytornogo knife. The teeth sereytora produce aggressive cut, preventing slipping on a hard crust of bread. Length of the blade bread knife should be 10 to 12 inches (ie 25 — 30 cm), the shorter you can always cut a large loaf without crumbs and longer cause problems during storage. I do like big knives, but I do not really like bread knives offered in sets — they tend to have a length of the blade 6 to 8 inches (15 — 20 cm). I think it's better to buy a separate knife with a long blade.
A few words about sereytore. Just want to say that I really do not like sereytornye knives. From my point of view, sereytornye knives are always lower quality than knives with straight blade, and they benefit only when immersed in the beginning of the cut. Sereytornye knives are very difficult to keep sharp. Even the best steel blade with the passage of time using blunt and sharpening of the knife — it is a separate challenge.
I can imagine only two problems when sereytornoe blade outperforms conventional:
-Cutting the bread just taken out of the oven
-Cutting the steak on a glass or ceramic plate
Although I must say that sereytor does all the work, but enough for a short time, which implies the practice of using it — after one or two years of domestic work it should be thrown out and buy a new one. It follows that sereytorny knife should be cheap.
Sereytorny bread knife can be used not only for cutting any kind of bread and cakes, but also for cleaning and cutting of large fruit with a rigid skin and soft pulp, such as, for example, pineapple (but are better suited samples shorter than 10 — 12 inches).
Delicate work sereytorom too difficult to implement, but it better cope with the blade of a knife SCALLOPED (uneven, ridged) that can do double duty — and how good slicer (like cutting meat, none sereytor not do nicely), and how good bread knife. A knife with scalloped blade leaves a clean cut.
Here, the clear favorite-MAC SB015 and Wusthof Super slicer. Initially, these knives are designed for cutting pastry, such as eg marzipan.
Sharpening of the knife is much easier than sereytornogo.
The picture shows a «scalloped» bread knife early 20th century, the production of "Pavlovian Artel."
I recommend to pay attention to:
BONING, knife to remove the meat bone c
Knife blade with a short rigid blade length of 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm). In this case, the name clearly defines the function — the removal of meat from the bones of mutton, beef, pork, and poultry butchering.
Sometimes it can be produced with a flexible blade, closer to the filleting knife (the knife can pass along the bone, cutting off the meat). These "twin" blades produces Messermeyster:
Messermeister Meridian. Upper — hard bottom — a flexible
Japanese counterparts are:
Honesuki and Garasuki
Glestain Garasuki (top) and Honesuki (bottom)
Garasuki is, in fact, a large version of Honesuki. Both of these knives are designed for cutting poultry (Honesuki-for butchering chickens and a smaller bird, Garasuki — for a larger, say, turkey, goose). Both the knife can be a two-way, but strongly asymmetric or unilateral grinding (front side) and the rear side — flat.
Hattori FH Boning
The handle can be both Western and Japanese.
Knife for cutting large pieces of animal (usually suspended) is Hankotsu.
You can pay attention:
Wusthof Ikon Boning
Sabatier Diamant Boning
Murray Carter Honesuki
Watanabe Kintaro-Ame Honesuki
Hattori HD Boning
Misono UX 10 Boning
Rysen Blasen Boning
Kanetsugu Pro-M Boning
from the English. «UTILITY»-utility profitability.
Universal rather narrow rigid knife blade with blade length between 5 and 7 inches (12-18 cm).
This knife can be used for cutting vegetables, fruits, cold cuts, cheese, herbs and small pieces of meat.
Like any utility knife, has its advantages and disadvantages. So, he has a shorter blade than the Chef's or slicer and therefore cuts made by Utility, will be less beautiful and will take longer. On the other hand, peel the potatoes they will be much more convenient than the Chef's, but paring do the task much better.
In the Russian tradition, a knife with a blade 14 -16 cm korenchatym called and used for cleaning and cutting of roots.
G.L.Prokopenkov. Knife korenchaty
Surprisingly, these knives are the most loved by our hostesses — if you conduct a survey on the topic "What is the knife you use most in the kitchen?" That most of the women and say, "A small, with a blade length of 15 centimeters — I do them all." The same G.K.Prokopenkov calls these knives "ladies' man", and I stand by that name.
Among UTILITY knives are several more functional "sharpened" knives:
Sereytornoe narrow blade length of 13 cm for cutting delicate fruits and vegetables that have a hard rind and a soft middle — tomatoes, oranges, lemons, etc.
There is often a forked tip — to make it easier to lift the thread.
Wusthof Ikon Tomato
But it often happens without a bifurcated tip
About the same knife can also be found under the title
«SAUSAGE», ie sausage — is mainly used for cutting hard sausages.
Wusthof Ikon Sausage
Another modification such as knives found «SANDWICH» — a knife for cutting sandwiches. May be in sereytornom and a simple («plain») performance.
Wusthof Ikon Sandwich
In Japanese manufacturers names «Utility» not found knives with blades up to 15 cm are called «Petty», and then go «Gyuto».
The main problem with cutting products Utility knife on a cutting board is that because of the short narrow blade you can not fully use the entire length of the blade without damaging their own fingers (usually not used a third of the blade). Therefore been developed so-called «DELI KNIFE» — knife Z-shaped, where the blade below the handle and your fingers do not interfere with use of all the blade when working on a cutting board. Offered as a sereytornom and the simple («plain») design. It is believed that «deli knife», especially in sereytornom performance, making the work with a sandwich, tomato, cucumber, bread, better and faster.
F.Dick. Deli knife
I personally believe that the shape of the knife gives a certain advantage, but what about sereytora I have great doubts (except that compare to the blunt knife).
Sometimes there are such forms of knives with a blade longer than Utility knife (for example, bread, or cutting cakes and muffins).
Remarkable company produces knives «Spyderco», as in sereytornom and in normal performance. The couple, in my opinion, the most versatile kitchen, given the quality of execution and good steel.
Spyderco KX 06 «Yang» and «Yin»
Sabatier Utility Diamant and Lion
Fiskars FF Utility
Tescoma Utility AZZA
Tescoma Utility Cosmo
The narrow blade with a raised tip (Yatagan blade) and even butt up to 13 cm
Mostly used as a serving knife for meat dishes. Often has Serration.
Wusthof Ikon Steak
Kitchen hatchet. It has a thick wide blade length of 15 -18 cm powerful tool to cut large pieces of meat (including frozen), butchering the joints and joints.
Cheese knife. There are various modifications for various cheeses.
F.Dick. Cheese Knife
Most often it is a knife with a serrated cutting edge and a forked tip. Typically, a knife blade (length 13cm) contains large holes to reduce sticking to the blade cheese.
A set of knives for cheese
There are a number of special knives, such as citrus fruit knife, a knife for cutting pizza, paring knife, sommelier knife, the knife for slicing garlic, butter knife, etc.
Sommelier knife for uncorking wine bottles
H.Roselli knife garlic
Knives for pizza, for cleaning vegetables and citrus
Knife for oysters
Slicer — knife for cake
The knife for slicing watermelon (Watermelon knife and Suikakiri)
To be continued …
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