Like Leno and hemp, nettle is one of the most ancient fibrous plants that people have learned to handle.
Closer to spring in some stems of nettle, particularly broken by the wind, somewhere already exfoliate the top layer of the bark, which are fiber.
Their elasticity and strength has long been appreciated by the birds. For example, Klest always finds Wren, in order to improve their winter nest.
Sparrow no, we’ll take the nettle volokna for sealing random cracks in insulated even with enlighten the nest. In the spring of procurement of construction material in the Wren vengeance leads tit-Remez.
Her nest cradle hanging over the water on the upstream raciti. It is so tight that does not collapse for several years. Don’t these birds craftsmen wise and person to use a strong elastic fibers nettle?
Like Leno and hemp, nettle is one of the most ancient fibrous plants that people have learned to handle.
From long and strong fibers of nettle produced yarn for the fabric, going to sewing clothes, sails and bags. It wove carpets, wheelie ropes and ropes, woven fishing nets. On the Western shore of lake Ladoga archaeologists had found a fishing net, linked from nettle fibres, back in the stone age.
Many may remember the tale by Hans Christian Andersen about how girl rescued from evil spells brothers, transformed into wild swans. On the advice of a good fairy she narwhal nettle, has kneaded her trunks, spun yarns, and then made their shirts of mail, return brethren human kind. In the parable affected old people’s faith in the miraculous characteristics of fabrics made of fibers nettle able tipo to protect humans from evil spells and the evil eye, also to treat different diseases. No wonder of nettle yarn knitting socks worn by rheumatic pains, belt, used with sciatica and migraines.
Evenly capricious stinging nettles were replaced with more pliable flax and hemp. But the memory of nettles as a fibrous plant was still preserved somewhere in the depths of consciousness, from time to time appearing in children’s games. In one ethnographic collection of the 19th century it was reported: "In the villages of the province of Ryazan girls spun fiber nettle to obtain filaments, which was made from rags dresses for dolls, ready threads mom did not give". May be, from the pedagogical point of view of the mother acted very wisely, not only because he reminded about the need to preserve much as involuntarily priucipal kids to crafts, craft. Left wondering: how devchenka became known spinning characteristics of nettle fibers, of which the adults had long since forgotten?
In fairness it should be said that nettle fibers were not forgotten by all adults. Even today they are used for spinning thread, preferring the purchase, the indigenous inhabitants of Kamchatka and the Amur region. Strong and long-term threads go on weaving bags, baskets and various boxes. In the manufacture of conventional products together with nettle threads are used willow twigs, trunks feral rye (tubaki) and elm. Quite often use other fibrous plant growing on vacant lots and burned — Ivan-tea maple, called by the people Ivan-tea.
Harvested in autumn stems Ivan-tea carefully remove the skin, divide it into fiber, dried and removed for storage. Part of the harvested material paint broth collected in the swamp saravelos moss containing iron oxide, in a dark color. In order to give a fiber gloss, pigment solution add fish oil. Alternating in a certain order black and light fibre, the wizard decorate the surface of the products in geometric patterns.
In the old days of fibers Ivan-tea wheelie rope, made of matting, horse harness, burlap and almost everything else. People plant was often called feral hemp. It emphasized the similarity of fibers with the fibers of hemp cultivated in areas of our country with the IX century, referred to as hemp. Nowadays hemp Napomena in the manufacture of marine ropes, canvas, tarpaulin, fire hoses. But because of narcotic substances contained in the plant, hemp fell into disgrace. Completely may be that in the near future scientists will be able to change cultural views of willow maple, fibers which have similar characteristics. Maybe there will be the turn and nettle, in the meantime, following the example of our ancestors, will make your hands nettle tow.
All at least vaguely heard how difficult it is to make and process flax, hemp. Nettles also, if you do this, as expected, in the autumn. Then it must be dry, later long soak, again dried, to obtain, in the end, the trust is called dried and peeled stems fibrous plants), from which are extracted spinning fiber. And if you collect nettles in winter and early spring, you will have already almost finished trust: nature — biting rain, dew, frost, fog and winter thaw has worked for you…
Brought in from the wasteland trunks nettle needs perfectly dry, put on the stove or near the Central heater. Then remove small branches and dried leaves. In order to verify the quality of purchased trusts, knead her fingers and nadramia in several places. Ready trust should be broken down in his hands with a slight crackle, and the fiber is separated from the woody parts of the stem.
OBMIVANIE. Processing trusts begin with has been pressed her special malico. How successful farmers mashed trunks depends on the yarn quality. Will not danesi malcai, so don’t take the wheel, » he warned farmers saying. Malice or Malku for processing a small number of trusts in home criteria can be made — it consists of 4 parts (Fig. 1A). To wood base width of 20 mm attach screw mi two boards having a saddle-shaped cutouts. On the inner side in places cut any boards mowed down at an angle of 45 degrees. The lever, or wallop, bottom a little point and attach to malice with the bolt. In turn, the basis of malice are fixed with screws on the bench or some other stable support. At one time on malice you can stretch only one handful of trusts, in other words as much as can fit in the hand. Begin to press down the trust from 1st of all, putting it in a saddle-shaped neckline with a raised arm. After each pressing and following this lift trust a little turn and push slightly forward. Do so until such time as a handful of trusts will not be one hundred percent obmat.
Obmivanie trusts is more fast, if instead of malice to use homemade double-shaft or three of Malki (Fig. 1 b). Although work on them and one, two still easier and faster. One lays between the shafts trust, the other twirling a pen and perceives wiped trunks, called moviesmom.
The BREAKING. In order to remove from Almaty trusts the boon woody part of the stalk, broken into small pieces, pats her special trepalle (or trapala), having the form of a huge wood knife or chopper. Trepalle (Fig. 2) cut out from a hard wood oak, maple and birch. Putting trepalle on povesma frequent sharp blows, as the cleaner can knock trapped in the fibers of the boon. Then poweska put on a stump and hard prikolachivayte (Fig. 2 b). Usually after such processing the remaining particles Kastraki just peel off. They can only shake, hitting a bunch of pousma about round wood stick (Fig. 2) or the edge of the bench.
OMEGAMANIA. Especially difficult are separated from pousma substances between the fibers in the upper layer of the stem. They can completely corrupt and delete method omegamania.
In order to understand the essence of this technique, you need to pick up a small beam Almaty and optipanel nettle and firmly squeezing the fingers, to polarcat each other (Fig. 3 (a). Usually they immediately start to separate and fall down the small dust-like particles. Freed from their fibers become spotless and silky. If you have to handle a significant number of pousma, it bundles more comfortable to hold, not arms, and special forceps (Fig. 3 b). Forceps consist of 2 birch slats connected by a strip of sheet steel. When omegamania one end of the beam pousma can be caught in malice lever-bill. But even more convenient to use a special clamp with cushion-eccentric (Fig. 3). Moreover, such a clip will be useful in the subsequent processing step of fiber — brushing. Fixed fiber capture the tongs next to the clip. Obslugiwal area by area, evenly moving from 1 end to the other. In a subsequent step, the bundle of fibers are turned over and secured in clamping the other end. Now it only remains to handle forceps end released from the clamp, and run to the brushing fiber.
BRUSHING. Prepared for the brushing fiber called Mikami. Nettle, also hemp sliver consist of long, medium and small fibers. The longer the fibers, the thinner and longer the yarn. To separate the long fibers from the medium and small in the old days used a huge maple combs mounted on the stand. But especially long and unblemished fiber was obtained after repeated scratching of the so-called Mikalai — malchance combs and brushes made from pig bristles. The process of combing and smoothing macheka, or lobes, which were called meganium. He achieved a great deal of patience, perseverance; it was neat to comb and smooth almost every strand of fibers. Here and gone well-known expression "to knock about", "Woe to Makati" and things like that. Fiber nettle enshrined in the clip, you can comb ordinary metal and plastic combs, commercially available. Before you begin to scratch gently placed one strand to another. To scratch start with a free end, uniformly moving in the direction of the clamp (Fig. 4 (a). With all of this on the comb remain short fiber floss — izgib. The average fiber length, comb out hair brushes, called pacname, and the remaining longish fiber — tow (Fig. 4 b). Fabric purchased from Kotelnich thread went on tunics, shirts, tablecloths, towels, linen for bed and other tonkadale products. From Ishiba and Picasa (other — waste and wycisk) was prepared yarn, running on a rough canvas — vitolo, it made blankets, bags, different litter and capes for carts. From the same fibers spun, then wove the canvas with a unique weave — veretye and ragnio used for household needs.
Of coarse fibers that were not processed by omegamania and itching, wheelie eat, wheelie ropes and ropes, used as a tow for gaskets between the crowns log logs, for konopacky grooves between the logs.
Canvas woven from Kotelnich filaments, bleached on the dew and snow, also boiled in lye — broth wood ash. Rope, twine, burlap, and other similar products from Ishiba and Picasa from time to time soaked day in decoction of oak bark, to increase strength and resistance against rotting bacteria. From time to time soaked in oak broth fibers were stained in a dark color. For this rope and burlap dipped in zarjavele water or steel in a solution of sulphate. These ancient methods of bleaching and dyeing with success can be used at the moment together with modern.
Tow and yarn nettle 39:20