A sample of such asylum — a cave. Dig it may, within one to two hours, even an inexperienced person. For all its structural simplicity of the classic cave protects from the cold is not worse than the complex «block» the needle, and perhaps it is even more comfortable.
Dug a snow cave on the slopes with deep (thickness of 1.5 m or more) of snow, where the avalanche danger is low. Average time built single cave — 30-50 minutes, two-triple — 60-90 minutes. In malozasnezhennyh areas suitable for the snow cave will be found near natural obstacles: from lonely protruding rocks, stones, on the slopes of ravines, in the steep river banks. The wind rakes and compresses the snow masses in dense monolith.
Prior to construction, make sure there are no stones in the snow, rocks, groundwater, ice. To do this inverted ski pole or planed thick branch to probe the snow in five or six places to a depth of 2-3 m And remember: you have to remove the «extra» warm clothes, so it does not become wet, top zip jacket, put on the hood, tighten sleeves and cuffs, zip pockets and zippers, release sleeve tops over, the jacket tuck pants under the gum or tie a rope.
Working inside a snowdrift, preferably litter under a piece of polyethylene, spruce branches, twigs. And if you do not have anything suitable, you should try to sit on the flexed leg to the area of contact with the snow clothes was the lowest.
General scheme for the construction of the cave is simple: first snow in heels knock-deepening hole, then break through the narrow tunnel in the snow. Dead end of the tunnel extends upwards to the required size. Snow shovel or cut with a knife, a saw, hacksaw, or a two-handed blade Bow Saw (bent into an arc), scraped bowler, bowl. If no instrument recess knock (scraped) sticks heels. Snow dumped into pits of the tunnel, and standing outside his rake. If you dig a cave on the slope, the waste dumped snow down «scooter».
Initial phase of construction — digging the tunnel — is perhaps the most difficult and «wet.» That it often «break» inexperienced tourists. If the first 1-1.5 m tunnel can easily pierce through ski pole or strong zherdiny standing «on the street», then you can continue to work just to get inside. The easiest way, lying on her side on polyethylene or back, starting from the ground with feet, enter the tunnel, and then, holding out his hands blindly cut the snow, throwing snow through the back and pushing yourself outside your feet. Cheer yourself that with the expansion of the stall side of the tunnel construction technology all simplified, and performance is increasing.
Narrow, not more than 60 cm in diameter, horizontal tunnel-hole goes deep into a snowbank at 1-1.5 m and rises at an angle of 70-90 °, extending to any of the parties to the required sizes. Ceiling of the cave should be a deep vault. Within the walls, you can cut a niche for backpacks and other cargo, small shelves for any business trivia. Volume cave is limited only by the height of a snowdrift. There are caves to ten or more people. But the more the cave, the roof must be thicker and deeper semicircle arch. During the construction of very large caves in the middle of the arch, you can leave one or two of snow column (diameter of 40 to 70 cm depending on the density of the snow) to the ceiling is not sag under its own weight. The property is a classic cave keep warm because its inlet is arranged below the floor a lot of cold air goes out, heated lingers inside, forming a kind of thermal pad in a room where there are people. In a properly constructed cave even in bitter cold will warm.
This differs from the classical one. In this case, the door closes snow blocks, backpacks, curtain cloth, plastic film. Inside built from blocks or compressed snow this bench to the top of it as much as possible was just above the roof inlet. Then people will be lying in the «thermal cushion.» If the cave is supposed to build a fire, there should be a small roof vent.