Dislocation — more severe injury than stretching joints. In dislocation of breaking and stretching «bag.» Very strong and sharp pain prevents any movement. In dislocation of the joint should ensure its complete immobility using splint. In dislocation of the first and indispensable condition — peace, complete immobility of the damaged joint. To quench usually arises dislocation sharp pain, put an ice pack, a bottle of cold water or cold compress.
If you cut the blood has a fountain, then affected artery. This is very dangerous, as facing a large loss of blood. It is important to immediately stop the bleeding. To do this, apply a tourniquet above the cut. Tourniquet can be kept no longer than one and a half to two hours, removing every half hour. With a little bleeding caused by, say, a cut finger — grease iodine circle wound and bandage with sterile gauze, in extreme cases — a clean cloth or a fresh handkerchief. Means for wound healing is a band-aid. It must be applied to the skin, previously disinfected with alcohol, ether or cologne. To a patch not formed pustules, it is necessary to change through1-2 days.
With loss of consciousness (syncope), immediately untie and unbutton clothes of the victim, so that nothing interferes with breathing; bring to a nose piece of cotton wool soaked with a small amount of ammonia. In a swoon man primarily needs of the inflow of fresh air. Therefore, we must now open the windows and doors, and if syncope occurred on the street — something fanned the patient’s face. Until then, until the patient has returned to life, do not rush to give him medicine, reinforcing drinks and even water; unconscious he can drown. When the victim wakes up, it is useful to maintain its strength strong coffee or tea.
Help drowning can be effective even if the person has stayed under water long enough. Even if he does not outwardly show signs of life, it is necessary to immediately remove and, if necessary, then cut the clothes. The victim’s mouth and nose clear of the slime and mud, tongue pull, so he popped out of his mouth. Then you carefully remove the water from the respiratory tract. To do this, the victim lay belly down, turning his head slightly to the side, placed under the chest and abdomen pad, roller or bundle of clothes and firmly but calmly pressed against his hands on his back, while squeezing the chest sides. After that we have to put the victim on his back and do CPR. When the victim is given in consciousness, it is necessary to put him dry clothes, clothes, wrap up warmly and drink hot strong tea, preferably with brandy. As already noted, have to apply artificial respiration sometimes within a few hours. It can only stop when the victim does it for breath, moved his lips and his face will light paint. If he stops breathing again, you should immediately resume the procedure. There are a number of methods of artificial respiration: 1. If you are alone with the victim, turn it face down so that the head was turned to the side and put his right hand to his mouth and nose were free. Left hand pull forward. After this, stand over the victim on his knees so that between them accounted hip lying man. Then wrap your fingers clean handkerchief and capturing their language victim, gently pull it out. Now put your hands on the back of the victim, his fingers covering his lower ribs on both sides. Counting «one, two, three», gradually tilt your body forward, move your body weight on the outstretched hands, press down so the lower edges of the victim. Without taking your hands off of his back, lean back and quickly in this position count «four, five, six.» Again counting «one, two, three» make squeezing. Such movement makes 15-20 per minute. 2. If you have a helper, one of you should hold an elongated tongue of the victim, the other — to produce artificial respiration. Victim lay on his back, tucked under his shoulder blades folded clothes, so that more was raised thorax. Then kneel at the head of the victim, grab his arms below the elbow and gently push them towards your chest with the Bolsheviks. Counting «one, two, three» rescued tuks lift up and gently guide them to a head. Count the «four, five, six» and again press hands to his chest. Drive the hands of the victim must work resolutely, but always avoiding jerks and too abrupt gestures. Ribs should squeeze carefully to the contents of the stomach does not get into the airways and not clogged their 3. If the victim has a damaged arm or fractured ribs, act differently. Place the victim on his back. Grab language fingers wrapped scarf. Counting «one, two, three», pull tongue forward as far as possible, without applying, however, effortlessly. Considering the «four, five, six,» the language of return to its normal position, not letting it out of your fingers. Repeat this persistently and methodically. Such a method reflexively activates just those affected nerve centers, rubbing his body with cloth or wool, as well as to give ammonia smell. Overview — persistence, persistence, strong determination to bring man back to life. And then artificial respiration to produce the desired result.
Characteristic signs stretching joints — a sharp pain, swelling and limitation of motion. In the presence of subcutaneous hemorrhage skin blue. Should immediately impose a moderate pressure bandage and seek medical attention in order to avoid fracture of the bone.
Stretching and torn ligaments.
Sprains and torn ligaments most often occurs in the ankle — mainly from the sharp movements failed step or awkward jump. It causes severe pain, swelling. In such cases, good helping compressive bandage, and over it the ice pack.
The first signs of heat stroke are severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and in severe cases — loss of consciousness. First-aid should be moved into the shadow of the victim to fresh air. Then it must undress and wrap up in the wet sheet, put his head on the ice or a cold compress.
When snakebites need, above all, dress the wound above the bite. Dressing after 40 minutes should be removed. Suck the blood of the mouth is impossible, as the poison can penetrate invisible to the eye wound on the mucous membrane of the mouth. Useful flame burned on a knife pretreated with tincture of iodine to make the site a few notches for increased bleeding
From the book Otuotera «Hunters for avalanches.»