As mentioned above, in general survival tactics in the mountains directly depends on the vertical zone, ie, from the height at which the accident occurred. In the highlands around the victims face the same problems as in the high latitudes – a lack of food of plant and animal origin, low air temperatures, the presence of snow cover, lack of fuel for fires and other emergency Belt forest provides about the same chances for survival that boreal forest etc. The specific techniques of self-salvation can find information in the relevant chapters of the book.
However, there are pure mountain hazards such as life-threatening man crashed and themselves capable cause distress. The most serious risk factors in the first place should include specific mountainous terrain, having a predominantly vertical structure, and the associated increased risk of flooding, rockslides, severe thunderstorm risk, the possibility of disruption to the vertical plumb falling. For example, according to statistics from the disruption on the rocks, avalanches, rock falls, falls in the cracks, collapses eaves struck by lightning killed nearly 80% of lovers of mountaineering and climbing of the total number of victims. And only 20% of fatalities accounted for frozen, dead from starvation and disease and other causes.
The next most important factor can be considered a threat climate. Storm itself rarely causes accidents (most often general hypothermia, occurred due to a sharp drop in temperature, strong wind), but provokes avalanches, mudflows, rockfalls, difficult orientation during heavy fog, rain leads to flood the mountain rivers, which are extremely dangerous for the crossings, strong wind complicates the work on the rocky terrain, etc.
Noticeable effect on the performance of people, their attention, reaction and psychological stability oxygen deficiency caused by the sparsity of the air and begins to affect the altitude of over 2000 m
A significant number of accidents in the mountains due to the ferries across the mountain river, with the underestimation of the strength of the water flow and low water temperatures. Hence it is very important, especially in a crash, serious approach to the crossings through even the smallest and seemingly safe water obstacles.
Overall survival strategy in the mountains reduced to perhaps a more rapid descent from high altitude areas to safer midlands and foothills (although even here there are exceptions, such as when the fire is better to climb the snowy slopes and glaciers). There will always be preferred to return path, moving from the known, previously overcome route. Random walk in the mountains in order to reduce the path is not valid because it can only lead to a worsening situation in distress.
The required safety measures during mountain trips include: the ability to organize and reliable self-vzaimostrahovku hazardous locations way to build various types of frame and fabric especially snow shelters navigate. Particular attention should be paid to the ability to signal distress and organize reception rescue helicopter as rescue operations involving aircraft is most common in the mountainous areas of the country.
For more information about travel in the high altitude, the related risks can be found in the widespread tourist or mountaineering literature, specialized journals and newspapers.
The only thing I will mention is the use of ropes for self-organization and vzaimostrahovki. Again, not in terms of climbing, but of survival. Especially in a situation where we need to overcome the dangerous section area is not without risk to fall from a height of several tens of meters, a person can be not only in the mountains.
For ropes used in mountaineering, have their own state standards, well-defined and not less strictly executed. Of course! They have to trust their own lives. Here trash at a loss.
In an emergency rope, meet all quality standards, may simply not be found. Therefore, in exceptional cases where it is impossible to get around the obstacle, it is permissible to use improvised ropes. You can even make them from natural materials. But these recommendations known to me, I do not dare to publish, fearing liability for any misfortune associated with their cliff.
In any case, all your rope before using as insurance should double check and triple load better, including rupture. If you have to hang on it alone, do the same thing, but in a safe place, two or three. For example, hook it over a high branch on the tree and grabbing all together, jump from a height of 2 – 3 m, strongly pulling the rope with which hang. Then carefully inspect the entire length of the rope – whether ruptured fiber puffs, deformation, etc. defects.
But even if the rope has stood the test, it should be used very carefully, constantly monitoring her condition.
In the implementation of insurance using a random rope must try to keep her vnatyag, reducing the possible breaking loads.
Once again – climbing tactics insurance in the case of precarious rope can be used only in a very truncated volume. This equally applies to overcome vertical obstacles in general. Where climber goes, you better crawl; where he boldly pits 10m rope, you better limit myself to two; where he evaluates obstacle as Middle Ease, you better find him particularly difficult; and finally, where it goes uphill (he and the climber), you’d better look for workarounds. Last most reasonable. A rope can be used for the device fabric shelters, fishing, drying clothes and other household needs. It will not be useless.
Descend the steep slopes on the rope is valid only when all other options have been exhausted. To do this, start up the rope for support (stone, wood), and extends to the middle so in dual form, passed through the leg and shoulder (Fig. 96). After the descent rope neatly and smoothly extends beyond one end, until the complete liberation. Before you go in a risky way down the slope, you should work out somewhere in a safe place.
The same rope can be converted to less reliable Harness needed when traveling on steep slopes and work on pitches. Also pitches, you can use ribbons cut from sturdy fabric. Fig. 97 illustrates one embodiment of a makeshift piping.
In any case, primitive binding made of random materials, can not be considered a complete substitute for natural, manufactured by the techniques described in the literature. Use primitive piping is only permitted under simple insurances and at low altitudes, pre-testing it on a break and self-tightening. Also extremely important, as spontaneously can span at failure with chest harness height can cause serious injury to a person.
When traveling on steep mountain slopes victims must be prepared for the fact that at any moment they may be following a slip or stumble and fall. And we must remember that any fall in the mountains can be fraught mnogosotmetrovym subsequent flight into the abyss, if not stop it in the beginning, until the slip velocity is still low. In tourism, the action is defined by the term “samozaderzhanie” (Fig. 98).
On grass slopes and scree samozaderzhanie should be, resting on the surface of the lower end of the slope (shtychkom) ice ax, alpenstocks or replacing them strong, tapered and burned in the fire end of the stick. When you start sliding should roll over on his stomach, legs slightly apart, and thereby increasing the friction area, stop. If this is not enough, you need to rest against the slope alpenstock, stick a knife in a pinch. With failure on the icy slope must kerf ice beak ice ax or what is it like a sharp object (ax, a knife), and not to weaken the pressure up to that point.
For lowering and lifting the mountain slopes to people who do not have the mountain training, it is best to use the makeshift rope ladders.
Rope ladder – the most convenient and democratic thing for distressed climbing equipment, as it requires no special skills to use.
Rope ladders can be as traditional – two spaced at 20 – 30 cm of rope connected wooden beams and unconventional – odnoverevochnymi related from the same or another rope loops.
Fig. 99 shows a classic rope ladder with rungs made of tree branches.
In the absence of a suitable tree can do only one rope, tying the entire length of the step loop (Fig. 100).
Knitted loop sequence is shown in Fig. 101.
More convenient rope ladders, where nodes hinged increased due to additional plexus rope. These “steps” give great support leg (Fig. 102).
Given that the foundation of any mining equipment traveler – the rope, I’ll provide some pictures that show how to mark the rope into a convenient carrying and storage bay (Fig. 103); how to make a thick rope of several thin twisting manner (Fig. 104) or braiding (Fig. 105); as splicing of same and the ropes of varying thickness (Fig. 106).
I will not detail more chapter on mountain self-salvation, for the simple reason that, unlike, for example, marine emergency taiga or even desert, in mountainous ordinary people can not easily get. For that he, at least, will have to purchase a specific mining equipment and learn how to use, which resemble consultations climbing section or read the professional literature. That is forced to pass, in one form or another, pre-training, which will be much more effective than my theoretical recommendations.