That project hopper for 4-8 people. Well, approximate data on the equipment.
For protection against the action of the shock wave at the entrances to establish strong metal protective airtight doors. Design input expect stresses greater than 1.5-2 times for regulatory overlap. It is no coincidence, as the inputs — the most vulnerable place in a protective construction: shock wave penetrating through the stairwells, hallways and the other way due to multiple reflections and seals can dramatically increase the overpressure. On their ability to withstand external influences life depends concealable.
Upon entering the shelter should include expansion chambers, to reduce the impact of the blast wave on protective airtight doors. Log into the expansion chamber of the premises within the contour seal must be fitted with two hermetic shutters — closing under the influence of the shock wave. Width locks, width and length of the vestibule and predtambura with swing doors must be 0.6 m greater than the width of the door leaf. Structurally-planning decisions inputs rising and embedded in the ground floors of shelters should provide adequate protection against ionizing radiation and to exclude the possibility of direct exposure to radiation in the protected space. The most simple method to provide inputs into the device turns at an angle of 90 ° or screens in front of doorways with overlaps between screens and shelters. Protective screens and thick slabs accepted calculation to radiative forcing.
Shelters should be provided for the device at one of the entrances of air locks. Shelters for single chamber arranged vestibule gateway. In the outer and inner walls of the vestibule gateway should provide protective airtight doors corresponding estimated impacts asylum and protection class. Protective airtight doors should open outwards, along the evacuation concealable.
All entrances to the refuge, except those equipped with locks, shall be equipped with lobbies. Doors in vestibules shall be provided: in the outer wall — protective hermetic corresponding estimated impacts, protection class of asylum and the input type, the inner wall — hermetically sealed. Doors should open during the evacuation concealable.
Part of the built-seekers should be placed closer to the corners of buildings and walls arranged parallel to the direction of the prevailing winds (in the direction of winter winds).
Tunnel emergency exit, combined with the entrance to the refuge is permitted to provide accommodation for a single-chamber air locks. In stand-alone shelters allowed one of their inputs, located outside the possible blockages, designed as an emergency exit. Emergency exits should be located, usually above the groundwater level. Excess benchmark groundwater relative to the floor emergency exit is allowed to take no more than 0.2 m, and in emergency exit, combined with the input — no more than 1.0 m
In high groundwater allowed emergency exit design through the coating as a protected shaft without the approach tunnel. When combining the mine emergency exit to the entrance should include stair descent. Exit out of the shelter in the tunnel shall be equipped with protective hermetic and hermetic shutters to be installed, respectively, with the outer and inner sides of the wall. Removing emergency exit depending on the height and type of buildings is taken according to Table. 4 SNIP II-11-77
Dimensions of openings and passages in the room must meet the requirements of SNIP II-11-77 and other regulatory documents. Number of inputs should be taken at least two, while the second input must be an emergency (evacuation) output in the form of a tunnel with an internal size of not less than 1.2 m and x2 the doorway size 0,8 x1, 8 m
Entrances and emergency exits must be protected from rain and surface water. Structures that protect the inputs should be made of light non-combustible materials.
Let us examine a little technical content zhizneobespechivaniya systems.
1. Inputs and outputs:
DSG I-IV — 1 pc.
DW — 1 pc. (DEL -3 pcs.)
LZG I-IV — 1 pc.
LH — 1 pc.
PSM 8/25 — 2 pcs. (To be used if the door or hatch not correspond to the class)
2. Protection Engineering headroom:
FHI — 2 pcs. (DEL -3 pcs.)
CRF 1/2 — 1 set.
4. Power unit:
DES — 1 pc. (Capacity depends on the number of consumers)
UPS — 1 set. (Providing at least 2 days)
1. Inputs and outputs:
DW / SU — 2-4 pcs.
Special ventilation system includes:
air intake and the protective device;
sealing means inputs and outputs, consisting of a door and a hermetic sealing material for partitions and curtains.
Clean air in the shelters of OB, RP and BS by means of absorbing filters filtering systems, which are supplied to the army service NBC defense, and set units of engineer troops, equipment shelters. Also FILTER absorbers other protective device units purify the air from large particles or conventional radioactive dust.
The main parts of the filter unit PVA 50/25 and PVA 100/50 are:
filter-absorber FP-50/25 or UPF-200, which serves to clean the air supplied to the refuge from OB, BA and RS;
Electrical manual fan SGA or VAP-1, which is intended for the fence, move outside air through the vent protector, air filter and absorbent, clean air supply to the building, and establishing an overpressure;
venting safety device or OVC-50 OVC-100, which provides protection against penetration into the construction of excess pressure in the shock front through the air unit, as well as to clean the air entering the construction of large particles or other radioactive dust. It protects the device and an air from entering the precipitation;
airway device (duct), is used to supply outside air to the filter-absorber;
set of mounting parts and tools.
In addition, the set of filter unit includes means for sealing and waterproofing: lightweight sliding doors sealed, waterproof paper and cloth made of rubberized fabric.
The unit PVA 100/50 also includes a pointer airflow ASU-2.
Panels made of rubberized fabric used for making curtain, which is separated from the outer atmosphere of a covered part of the entrance to the protective airtight door to form a second vestibule in structures having one platform.
Mounting filter unit, the test sequence for the correct installation and serviceability of units:
when installing the vent cover protective devices OVC or OVC-100-50 must not protrude above the level of dusting asylum;
from pit OVC comes off rainwater groove;
Nipple rings absorbing filters to ensure airtight connections parts unit must be rotated counterclockwise so stop;
to rotate the handle of the fan provides free space;
Index airflow ASU-2 is mounted horizontally, the arrow coincides with the zero of the scale;
Grounding fan motor one end of the ground wire is clamped bolts securing the motor to the fan, and the other end, if the unit is mounted in a metal building, attached to the skeleton structures in the construction of non-metallic elements — a metal rod or pin, scored in the ground between the elements of the core ;
cloth hermetic door should move freely within the segments, allowing the opening (closing);
therebetween after closure should be no gap;
in front of the building with a vestibule provides installation curtain.
Aggregates and FVA-100/50 FVA-50/25 must submit to the construction of, respectively, 100 and 50 m3 / h of purified outside air.
Protective properties of aggregates verified using chloropicrin.
To do this, a cloth dampened with 5 — 7 ml of chloropicrin, brings to the air intake filter unit operating device. No irritating odor of chloropicrin in the crew room, determined organoleptically personnel stationed inside the object, shows robust protective properties of the unit.
Tightness structures verified by measuring the deviation values flap valves to flow of air in the upper segments of the hermetic doors (with open protective airtight door or hatch). At nominal air supply units flap valves should deviate from their shells at a distance of 1 to 1.5 cm in lower values of deviations damper valves should be taken to improve the tightness of the structure.
Start order filter unit to work on the drive:
insert the plug into an outlet of the motor;
smoothly, without jerks crank handle for manual operation of the fan at least three or four turns;
press the trigger switch of the motor no more than 3s. Longer time pressing the trigger switch can lead to combustion motor windings.
3. Power unit:
UPS — 1 set. (Providing at least 2 days)
1. Vzryvobezapasnye Good doors are not cheap, about 100 Russian rubles, but skip the blast wave through the shelter suicidal. Knock out all the internal doors are not sealed, will destroy both people and equipment. The optimal option if BP simply concreted entrance, in any slechae after the shock wave will be impossible to use it. You can certainly go and play structure in the subway, but it’s more unmasking — 2 outputs.
2. San. node is so because of the position the camera sewer, drain comes from SU, kitchen, vestibule and DSU. This is the question of communication. Worth considering the use of diesel exhaust gases and sinks for heating and hot water (heat pump may only big price tag).
3.FVU must be placed at the emergency exit, and from the premises should have easy access to an emergency exit. About the used air is not a good idea to read the book «Steel coffins» (by Herbert Werner), there are well described what happened on board with occlusion snorkel — diesel instantly burned up all the oxygen. This can happen in a shelter in case of failure of ventilation.
4. Single storey promising system because of the potential to mask the construction of the bunker, for example the construction of the pool. Drainage as such is not necessary, and at a depth of 7 meters useless. Exterior waterproofing — Okleechnaya Layer 2-4 hydrophobic concrete M400 (used for the construction of swimming pools), internal waterproofing Paint 2 layers of metal (if you use containers). Next 50-100 mm insulation, vapor barrier and interior trim.