As promised the full article on spinning, weaving and felting.
A little history:
Weaving was invented by a man in the Neolithic period — about 8000 years BC. Before nucleation weaving primitive people dressed in animal skins, which were ligated strands made from the same animals lived.
Weaving — production of fabrics of yarns of animal or vegetable origin. Weaving process is preceded by the spinning process. Of short hairs or vegetable fiber spun yarn, twisting the hairs or fibers together. The filaments are then intertwined. The longitudinal yarns form the foundation fabric, and crosswise yarns are arranged perpendicularly and form the basis of the weft. Interwoven warp and weft threads form a tissue cloth.
Weaving as a craft was the result of human transition from nomadic to a sedentary lifestyle, from gathering to domestication of animals and cultivation of plants.
Weaving technology is more complicated than it may seem at first glance.
Before obtaining suitable for making fabric thread, be aware of what you can get. Many pets are covered with hair, but not every wool for weaving. All plants are composed of fibers, but any plant fiber suitable for weaving.
Bringing new breeds of animals, ancient people learned to distinguish and consolidate in the next generation features useful for themselves — such as long hair sheep. In crop same thing happened. Through trial and error people have discovered that some plants suitable for the manufacture of their fibers strong threads. Some of the oldest plants used to produce raw materials for weaving — is flax, hemp, jute, kenaf (they all belong to the so-called fiber crops) and cotton. By the way — cotton cultivated in India for nearly three thousand years BC.
Besides animal hair and plant fiber for the manufacture of fabrics used natural thread of animal origin — secreted by silkworms silk. Silk thread forms a cocoon in which the silkworm metamorphosis. Therefore caterpillar moth bred in artificial conditions.
Grown and harvested from the field was a multi-processing plant — loosening, to beating, mixing, combing, stretching. Then the finished fiber spun into yarn, twisting his hands using simple spinning wheel. Spinning wheel was a wooden comb, which secured the fiber bundle. When finished spinning thread wound onto the spindle — a tapered wooden stick.
As a result, spinning randomly tangled fragile fibers intertwined and gained sufficient strength. The resulting yarn was bleached, dyed in the desired color with vegetable dyes. Then prepared from yarns woven fabric.
Having mastered weaving in ancient times, mankind has not parted with this craft ever. To facilitate the production machines were invented — and spinning, and for the production of fabrics. Handloom is a simple wooden frame, which stretched warp yarns, and manually move the crossmember-hook attached to it with thread duck — one of the oldest tools. One can only marvel at the ingenuity of the ancient masters, first coined this low-brow, but quite effective device. The machine has not only accelerate the production of tissue, but also to achieve obtain sufficiently fine texture with a smooth surface.
Felt (embedded system)
For many people, especially nomadic felt was the main type of textile, the man who served throughout life. People were born and died on the felt, dressed in felt clothes, hid horses felt blanket. Felt in traditional views, guarded from evil spirits and enemy forces, rescued from heat and cold.
Felt produced mostly from sheep’s wool. Thanks scaly upper layer (cuticle) wool fibers under the influence of hot water and steam are able to bond with each other, and based on what principle voylokovalyaniya. Since wild sheep wool had cuticle first felts could not appear before the sheep were domesticated. Therefore the beginning of history felt the researchers attribute to 5-6 millennium BC, when there were also domesticated the horse and dog, who helped shepherd large flocks. From this time voylokovalyanie became one of the main activities in the economic activity of many nations.
The earliest form of matter is a non-woven textiles, which can be attributed felts. Their production technology was simple enough: wool stacked layers, with one of them included ornamental compositions carpet and the other layer served as its background. Then the wool moistened with soapy hot water (homemade soap finely crumbled and dissolved in water) and patted his hand, trying not to move layers. This process, called primary roll was the most important. Then wrapped in woolen mass roll form and fixed rope. It is very important to make a hot aqueous solution infiltrated all layers evenly, so should not tighten the rope too tight. When first poured felting wool weight in hot soapy water, and at the end of the Cold.
First performed felts made of natural wool natural color. Traditionally used for the manufacture of wool, dyed with natural dyes. The resulting color should be in harmony with each other and be resistant to atmospheric influences and washing, so the process of dyeing wool paid serious attention. Plants were natural dyes which dye to obtain the desired quality and color, was collected at a specific location at a specific time.
When using natural dyes craftsmen sought diverse palette. So, green leaves prepared from walnut, mulberry and nettles; brown — decoction of walnut shell and gray-of mature beans; pink wool gave flowers wild poppies and blue plum branches, and yellow — onion peel. Later by successive staining or mixing pigments achieved new color combinations.
For fixing and fixing dyes used juice acidic (sour) cabbage, oak ash, rusty nails, copper sulphate.
Felt manufactured generally in the form of panels of different thicknesses. Thin felts used as head coverings, made of thick armor, shoes, covering for the yurt. There are several methods of decoration and ornaments batts: racking pattern; applique felt, fabric, leather; felt inlay (mosaic method) using decorative stitches; embroidery on felt, beading and seashells; painted on felt, etc. The main ones are kept up to date.
Bearers of the Iranian art of felt with rolled-in pattern were the peoples of Central Asia, which today operate felts just as it did in ancient times. Turkmen felts favorite colors were white, red and black, and the basic pattern-stylized ram’s horn. When this pattern laid out on the mat wool, which was rolled, and then proceeded directly to the felting felts. Pazyryk technique that got its name from the famous felt-curtain found in a barrow, characterizes the finest jewelry applique unusually bright colors. Felt applique on felt and now widely used for decorating products in many nations. However, every day life, for example, in the tradition of Buryatia monochrome felts, entirely decorated with fine stitches tendon fibers.
If wallow small products usually done by women, the production of large items considered primarily a man’s job. For example, ready-to-yurt felting cloth wound around a stick and sutured to the skin. Then stick tied to a saddled horse stirrups, which took her to the field until the felt is not stringy.
Slavic peoples actually never made felts. But they were familiar with the so-called poluvoyloki-woven and then podvalyannye materials. Classical result of this technique is the cloth from which a long time doing outdoor clothing.
Felt and used to cover the head. Thus, various forms of headgear, made from sheep’s wool, is well known to many peoples of the Volga and Ural regions. Wallets horsing way home on a wooden disc. In some areas, for example, in Orsha, manufacture of men’s hats acquired the character of handicrafts.
And interesting history of the emergence of boots in Russia, which belongs to the middle of the XIX century. When felted boots were extremely festive footwear, considered a valuable asset for every family. With the development of fishing ritual purpose boots varied: in some areas became festive boots everyday or working in other existed felt boots intended only for holidays or work. At the end of the XX century. boots from the once fashionable and prestigious shoe turned first into everyday, and then shoes for children and the elderly. However, until now in the harsh winters many villagers put in place modern fashion leather shoes favorite boots.
In the Caucasus and today almost all stored methods for making and decorating felts and felt products. Mosaic, when two panels of different colors of felt, laid one on another, one cut pattern patterns, different-colored elements are swapped and sewn into a finished product.
But Wait a proper technology:
Felt. For this wool stacked layers on the mat, wool moistened tkan.Zatem soapy hot water (homemade soap finely crumbled and dissolved in water) and patted his hand, this process is called primary roll was the most important. Then wrapped in woolen mass roll form and fixed rope. It is very important to make a hot aqueous solution infiltrated all layers evenly, so should not tighten the rope too tight. When first poured felting wool weight in hot soapy water, and at the end holodnoy.Potom Felt cushion sewn into the skin or into a solid cloth tied to livestock cartage, which dragged about 2km.
Thread. production of wool yarn is a very time consuming process. Initial processing of wool consists of a number of technological operations. The first operation is — washing wool. Fleece first soaked in water, leaving for a few days in a pond or a large wooden Lahan, then washed in cold river water. For better cleansing of dirt, hair and trample underfoot beaten with sticks, mallets. Sometimes the wool was washed in water ash. Washed wool dried in the sun in the form of hanging or spreading on the wards. Dry hair is processed further. Cleared of adhering vegetable seeds, shown in color. Then, using lukoobraznogo tool (Fig. 1) open the tufts matted wool for this string instrument is immersed in this wool and banging her stick, bring it to oscillate, loosens hair and loss of her impurities. Depending on the purpose of washed wool dry white subjected to bleaching. For this purpose, special white clay, pulverized by hand mill, stirred with water and the resulting solution was dipped wool. Known another way, when the pre-calcined and milled to a powder mineral — silky gypsum dissolved with sour milk and the mixture was immersed for bleaching wool yarn. The next operation is combing wool. For combing wool used wooden triangular shaped tool, the upper acute angle which planted ferrule with two rows of sharp steel teeth. Fig. 2 … Sitting on the floor, both in terms both hands to dissolve the beam for beam vychesyvaet wool fibers. In the course of two, sometimes three times a day combing long wool fibers are arranged parallel to each other, and poor-quality short and tangled fibers in the form of waste remain between the teeth of the comb. First go into the making of high quality yarn, while the latter are used in the manufacture of felt. Combed wool spinning by turning into long and strong yarn — yarn. Technological process of spinning is performed using a hand spindle, which is a II-millennium BC. e. remains unchanged. Fig. 3 …
Tool for loosening the wool.
Fig. 1. Tool for loosening wool.
Fig. 2. Comb for combing wool.
Fig. 3. Spindle
From this ancient and uncomplicated tool, spun into yarn. Tufts of the fingers of one hand pulls the fibers that twisting and thinning, coil by coil, wound on a rotating spindle with the other hand. In addition there are two types of spindle spinning wheels. One of them spun into yarn mainly for suknotkachestva. This wooden vertical stand with horizontal inset at the top of which is mounted on a stone pedestal. Fig. 4. More advanced and productive distaff with a relatively complex device most commonly used for a yarn. Its principle of operation is based on the rotational motion of the wheel diameter 50 cm right hand rotationally driven wheel while left-regulated formation of the yarn on the spindle. Fig. 5 …
Fig. 4. Distaff.
In the production of tufted products depending on destination woolen yarn is divided into three types: primary, uzoroobrazuyuschaya and weft. Twisting several strands of yarn produced yarn for a base having sufficient strength. The weft yarn is weak twist, thinner and less strong than yarn bases. Uzoroobrazuyuschaya yarn from the first two differ by more loose, thick and fluffy yarn. Lint-free products for yarn for the warp and weft is more homogeneous, but also strong enough twist.
In the manual production of about 50% of labor costs accounted for by labor-intensive processes of preparing the auxiliary yarn, the most labor-intensive ones — combing and spinning wool. Per day, working (from morning to evening, the skilled worker can comb only 1 kg of wool. On hand spinning wool yarn from this leaves more time.
An important link in the process chain is the process of preparation of raw yarn-dyeing, requiring large human labor and time. Individual knowledge of the coloring properties of many materials and skills of their processing, accumulated as a result of their own experiences, when combined with inherited from previous generations of information about colors, allows people to receive from the available raw material dyes of different colors and shades.
As you know, all the components necessary for coloring yarn expert they receive from local natural materials known to them by traditional methods. For example, potash for vat dyes obtained from the ashes of plants growing in saline soils. As mordant often use fruit acids. High quality dyes of various colors, with sufficient strength and resistance to various external factors, mainly skilled workers obtained from the leaves, bark, fruits and roots of herbaceous plants and fruit trees. Of mulberry leaves, walnut, apple, quince, pomegranate bark, wild plum paint obtained from the most intense pale to brown. Yellow color obtained from flowers grizzled clover, and from the plant — karachup get black paint. Green is formed by dipping the yarn dyed yellow in a solution of indigo (blue). The red color is obtained from the roots of plants, known as madder. Depending on the processing method and time of harvest broth madder dyes yarn in various shades of red in color from light pink to burgundy. While different parts of the root give a different color. Core gives bright red core — red; sapwood with bark — Brown. Other known plant to produce yellow dye is saffron. For dyeing wool yarn in different shades of blue used for vat dyes — indigo. Since the late XIX — early XX centuries. in carpet making and began to use bright and Mark aniline dyes.
The next necessary in view of the production of raw material is cotton. In modern carpets often yarns for warp and weft are made of cotton. Cotton yarn compared with wool has many advantages. It is easier to handle, facilitates the process of weaving, is not afraid of moths and allows high density weave products. In the old days in many countries cultivated hemp, from which of its yarn and woven burlap simple rugs large. In many villages, engaged in manufacturing of hemp fabrics to meet domestic needs and partly for sale. Hemp stalks harvested in the fall back in the form of green and tied in bundles and dried in a mop on the floor or under the eaves of the house. Then picked up the stems of the same length and tied in sheaves. These bundles were soaked in water bodies within 12-18 days. Then dried beforehand, hemp bundles stacked on stone or wooden stand and frequent attacks on them mallets bast separated from wood stems. The resulting fiber patted, squeezed and the crest of thick chicken feathers combed. Spinning as well as wool and pulling and twisting the strands in the required thickness using the spindle and distaff. Depending on the purpose of hemp yarn subjected to special treatment, starched and bleached. Yarn of cannabis differed extremely strong and was used for making many materials essentials.
So with threads sorted out now directly loom. Horizontal better, as it is more productive and technologically, but more difficult to manufacture.: How it works is as follows:
Warp yarns and storing with pryazhnogo warp beam 1 envelop Cliffs 2 and 3 price sticks, which are used to order them (save for a pair of division and sequence specified when warping). Then the warp yarns pass through the eyes 4 harnesses, by means of which they are divided into two layers; formed during this period is called weaving throat. It Mapped shuttle 9 weft yarn 10. K edge of the fabric weft yarn 11 is nailed reed 6 set in 7 batten. Therefore, after passing through the eyes harnesses all the warp threads in the same order should be principle of weaving stankaprobrany the gaps between the teeth of the reed. Moving harnesses in the vertical plane to form a throat made using pegs 8, which is possible only when the mobile podvyazi harnesses for 5 blocks.
Whenever healds, moving form the weaving shed, it Mapped shuttle weft thread. Thereafter, reed, moving forward batten nailed to the edge of the weft fabric. Healds then change their position and the process laying and nailing duck repeated.
Generated tissue encircles mastitis 12 and wound onto warp beam 13 trademark.
Well, that’s basically it. CIDA slippers. Apologies for the delay. (Caused by work: on optical path portion)
Admin. If you want to remove the unfinished article
And another digression to the previous article:
thread of fluff:
Well, brag, he must be forged. Tell me why quickly blunts steel Raisson Zilovskoye: