History of the creation of the border fortifications of the last century in the land of the Orenburg region are interested in local history Novoorsky school number 3 in 1957. In those years, the guys have found and described Musagatsky and Svistunsky redoubts. Imperial large poleaoe strengthening They were refined dimensions of each structure. Thirty to thirty meters square was the smallest strengthening – picket; redoubt was laid more – seventy to seventy. And the biggest strengthening occupied an area of three to three hundred meters. Each of the fortifications enclosed rampart and ditch. In recent years, school rangers made a detailed list of castles and villages, built in 1835 and–1837 on the draft of the new boundary line laid by the governor of Orenburg Perovsky. Guys have found that writing on the memorial tablets of the two preserved fortresses dated error
New expedition to study the history of settlement edge summed up many years of search engine school ethnographers. Pathfinders drove 1530 miles and put on record thirteen fortifications. Boundary line, established half a century ago, has received a clear conclusion.
On the muddy road, we reached the village of Elizabeth’s.
The village as a village. On the hills that we climbed at once, there is no hint of the old fortifications, no trace of the previous buildings. Tried to ask the old-timers – no one could say. And who can now remember that it was at the beginning of the last century!
Meanwhile, here was Elizabethan redoubt – one of four outposts Imperial fortifications. Compared the modern map with the map in 1835. Here Elizabethan village– on a modern map. Here Elizabethan redoubt – on the old map. Where is to be found?
Someone’s finger rested against a map and leads to a string river Urus Kesko:
–Wait This is the right bank?
–And Elizabeth’s built on the left bank!
–It is true! We must look at the opposite
At the bend of the river showed up and the shaft, and the moat, they fenced off a bend of the river and the steep bank to the place from all over the surrounding countryside. Have redoubt – found! Only the form it was unusual: the military builders used relief – steep bank, a sharp turn of the river, and did not deem it necessary to enclose the redoubt closed moat.
It is interesting that at this school – only on our way to school, where a museum,– reflects the entire history of the village, but there is no mention of the fact that in these places there was a fortress. We told the local trackers, where she was when laid and for what purpose it was built in the first half of the last century. By the way, and hinted that if it is good to dig – and there are the remains of buildings, and even household items
A few days later we found the route shown on the old map Ekaterinovskiy redoubt, located on the right bank Aydyrlya. Measurements made and talked with residents! Thoroughly examined the valley and found two of the picket, which were listed on the old map numbered "seven". Ramparts and ditches are high, more pronounced, even survived the pit of mud huts.
Catherine village famous for the fact that there occurred the major events related to the raids Sultan Gasimov Kenisary on Russian colony. Kenisary was the grandson of Ablay Khan. Smart and shrewd politician, a good general, a cruel and capricious ruler, he sought to restore the Kazakh Khanate within that belonged to his grandfather: "I will destroy and burn out a whole new line!"– Kenisary threatened.
The attack on the village Yekaterininsky was committed August 14, 1844. The defense of the village led the Cossack Ataman constable Dmitry M. Myasnikov. In his reports, he reported that the Sultan "Kensary" with a group of more than two thousand people from the four sides attacked Catherine, burned suburb, seized property and all the bestial herds belonging to the villagers. Next Myasnikov reports: "Is predatory Kyrgyz though and tried to set fire under various twists and the last village in the consolidation, but from this reflected. At what action Kyrgyz killed from our side constable Stepan Lukyanov, Tiny Dmitry Obukhov wife Daria Averin. Other well captured, going on field work".
The battle lasted for more than four hours. Precipitated used artillery. Residents suffered the following damage: killed 7 people, captured 28, ninety five Cossack families were left without shelter and food, no livestock and equipment. Kenisary stole 132 horses, 227 cattle, 158 oxen and 1,680 sheep and goats.
It was not the first damage caused by the Russian settlements. Six years before the raid on Catherine, in particular "successful" its year Kenisary successfully attacked the village on Naslednitskuyu, St. George, Elizabethan, Varvara, the farm and the Konstantinovsky Habarny strengthening. More than twenty major raids made by the Sultan and his henchmen, killing many of the Cossacks, many stolen cattle in the steppe.
After the raid on the village Yekaterininsky Kenisary migrated in Karakum, but his followers and then continued to run against Russian settlement on the border and rob them. The spring of 1845 the sultan reappeared on Thurgau, this time Russian troops drove it on the Syr Darya. From there Kenisary was supplanted by the Kokand khan and in 1847 killed Kara-Kyrgyz mountains and Ala-Tau.
In the village Naslednitskoy members of the expedition for a surprise. We expected to see the usual ditch and earthen rampart, and saw the most real fortress, with towers at the corners, the walls of which are made of red brick. In the center of the fortress still stands-dome church, from which an underground passage leading to the steep bank of the river. In moments of danger this fortification to withstand a long siege.
One of the towers of the fortress is a memorial plaque, which states that the fortress was built in the XVIII century. We believe that those who have installed the board erred in almost. half a century. Mistake is made, probably due to the common belief that all villages and fortresses in our region are incorporated in the XVIII century. This is incorrect. In the eighteenth century built only old Border line from Orsk to Troitsk; in the thirties and forties of the eighteenth century fortress built Tanalykskoya, Chui, Steppe and the Trinity. The plot of the old border in military and strategic was uncomfortable – huge hit wedge between the fortresses. Align this polyline and took Perovsky governor, became head of the Orenburg region in 1833, when the mind to make a new boundary line and build a series of additional fortifications.
From the report of the Governor Perovsky in 1839 it is clear that the right wing of the completed construction of fortifications Naslednitskogo and Imperial, and on the left – Michael. So, Naslednitskoe was the same reinforcement, with an earthen rampart and a moat, and only later the fortress was built of red brick. And the church has appeared late, because usually the temples of God is not on public money, and the donations of the faithful. Ordinary worldly logic also proves that the inhabitants of the village first had to build a house and premises for cattle, then the fortress, and then the church.
Fortress Naslednitskaya relates to strengthening the new border line 1835–1837’s, and on the memorial plate must be specified Century ,not the eighteenth, and nineteenth.
Very similar to Naslednitskuyu Nicholas (or Nicholas) fortress. It is better preserved. The height of some of its towers for more than six meters. Inside the fortress wall made earthen mound, the better to keep firing at the enemy. On the arch of the fortress gates plaque again indicates the XVIII century. The same error in "Statements about the status of a new line to the January 1, 1839" said clearly: strengthening Nikolaev founded in 1836.
In the last expedition we found Alexis redoubt, well-preserved in strengthening Konstantinov was applied to your card a lot of fortifications Mikhailovskoe – there remained only the church itself strengthening, apparently razed. Interestingly, the existence of a fortress around the church is confirmed at the Mikhailovsky toponymic evidence: part of the village, located in a ravine, still called the suburb We left and the tower of Tamerlane, which is associated with many interesting legends. Noticed ka symmetrically cut through holes in it; it is not nothing but a loophole. Val and roses around the tower of the same dimensions, which correspond to the smallest fortifications – pickets. This suggests that the oldest historical and architectural monument of the XIV century in the Southern Urals was used as a fortification on the border line. On our map it is listed as a picket Tamerlanovsky.
Thus, historical and natural history expedition fully restored line of border fortifications of the last century. It consists of five distances. First – strengthening the Imperial, which includes the village Kumatskaya, Novoorsky, Peter and Elizabeth. The second – Big field fortification: village Maryinskaya Atamanskaya, Pavlov, St. Andrew and Catherine. The third – strengthening Konstantinovskoe with stanitsas Annensky, St. George, and the Princely Olginskaya. Fourth Fortress Nicholas (or Nicholas), which adjoins the village Yelenovskaya, Vladimir, Alexander, Sofia. Finally, the fifth – strengthening Mikhailovskoe former subordinate villages of Natalinskoy, Alexeyev, Kirikovskoy, Nadezhdinskaya, Varna and Barbara. All these contributions have been in 1835–1837 years of the last century. Thirteen defensive structures found and put on record the expedition.
Now the goal of school ethnographers – to ensure that these historic sites have become known to the public region. Of course, you want to correct the record on the memorial tablet Naslednitskoy and Nikolaev fortresses, to reflect the actual date of their construction. But then, other fortifications plaques need It – Check the history of the region, the history of the approval of the borders of the Russian land and settlers fight for their integrity.
In pictures: The Tower of Tamerlane. Used as a fortress of the new boundary line; naslednitskaya Fortress. Founded in 1835 on the new border line Perovsky governor.
1 Ryazanov AF At the junction of the struggle for the steppe, 1928 p. 61.
Photo I. Osipova.
References: Journal "Ural Ranger" No. 2 / 1982. s.41-43.