Hare refers to large rabbits: length of his body 57-68 cm, weight of 4-6 kg, occasionally comes to 7 kg. Body fragile. Outside hare excellent different from the hare more longish ears (9,4-14 cm), longish conprovide tail (7,2-14 cm in length), black or black-brown color on top. The eyes of the hare reddish-brown.
The hind limbs are longer than the hare, but the legs shorter and narrower (foot length of 13.6-18.5 cm), as hare lives in regions where snow cover is shallow and hard. Summer coloring the hare is ochre-grey, brown, brown, ochre-red or olive-brown, various colors. The fur of the hare shiny, silky, considerably twisted.
The appearance of the HARE
The flanks are lighter colored back. Belly white, without ripples. Eye white ring. The tips of the ears all year round black. The winter fur of the hare little lighter summer. Head, ears and front part of the back and in the winter remain dark.
MOULT OF THE HARE
As with all rabbits moult in birds with one stone Rusakov held in spring and autumn. Spring moult usually starts in the 2nd half of March and continues 75-80 days, ending by mid-may. More rapidly it occurs in April, when the hair falls out in handfuls. The General direction of molting hare — from the head to the back of the body.
Autumn summer fur is evenly rolled, and her replacement is growing thick and pyshnovatym winter fur. The direction of the autumn moult the hare back to the direction of spring — it starts with the hips, then runs on the croup, range, front legs and flanks. Longer just a summer fur remains on the back and near the eyes. Start shedding of the hare usually falls in September and ends in the end of November, although the warm weather may be delayed until December.
The habitat of the HARE
Hare-hare steppe animals of Europe, Front and Asia Minor and North Africa. At the current time hare-hare versprochenen in the steppes, forest-steppes, tundra and masloobraznyj areas of the forest zone of Europe, in the North to Ireland, Scotland, southern Sweden and Finland, in the South to Turkey, Transcaucasia, Iran, and North of the Arabian Peninsula, Northern Africa, Northern Kazakhstan.
In the Russian Federation hare inhabits throughout the European side of Ladoga and Onega lakes, the Northern Dvina. Area of distribution are: Kirov, Perm, Ural mountains, through the mound until the Pavlodar region of Kazakhstan. The southern boundary are: the Caucasus, the Caspian sea, the plateau and the North: from the Aral sea to Karaganda. Took the climatic conditions in the region of southern Siberia.
Hare — in the main inhabitant of open spaces, forest-steppe, steppe, desert-steppe landscapes. The main habitat of the hare in the woods is open places: fields, meadows, edge, immense deforestation, meadows, Gary. In the depths of coniferous arrays occurs occasionally, more common in the deciduous forests, though it prefers woodland.
In particular loves hare areas where agricultural land interspersed with small copses, thickets of shrubs and network of ravines and gullies. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones found on the supports, floodplains, reservoirs and grain crops. The habitat of hare found in the mountains. Here it is found to the Alpine zone, living not only in the mountain steppes, and forests. In the summer it rises in the mountains up to 1500 — 2000 m, and in the winter hare goes down.
Everywhere tends to be populated Fri (especially in winter), are also reservoirs. Normal hare — settled territorial animal. Dependent Cornesti environments it can constantly stay in one area, occupying 30-50 ha
In other areas of the hare-hare make daily migrations from lairs to foraging grounds, passing on the 10 km. Are also seasonal movements; in autumn and winter hare often moved closer to population Fri, edges of forests and in elevated areas, where there is less snow. It is still further hare moved South.
Hare lives in areas where the snow is usually the least deepest and frail. Because snowshoes it is not necessary. But the jump from the hare razmashistye. In the mountains of the hare-hare fall down in flood plains, and in the spring go back to the mountains. Under adverse criteria (highest snow cover, ice crust)that interfere to produce food from under the snow, observed mass carting. In the southern regions move hares-Rusakov marked in the spring and summer and are associated with human economic activity.
THE ACTIVITY OF THE HARE BY TIME OF DAY
Active hare-hare to a greater extent in the twilight and night hours. Only in a rut everywhere observed daily activity. Great activity falls on the first half of the night and pre-dawn hours. Under adverse criteria hare may for several days not to go on internship. Lair of the hare in the summer time is usually just a small hole dug under the cover of a Bush, a fallen tree or curtain of higher grass.
Often hare lies just under the Bush or field boundary. Constant nor not satisfied, from time to time digging temporary daytime burrow under extreme heat. Can relax in the abandoned burrows of badgers, foxes and marmots.
The placement of shelters hare is depending on the time of year and the weather criterion. In the spring of lairs often placed in warm places. In rainy weather hare kept on drier uplands, and in dry weather in the lowlands. Winter lair of the hare gets snow in the closed against the wind. In areas with deep snow hare-hare from time to time dig burrows up to 2 meters Often hare-hare occur in autumn and winter in the haystacks, the buildings on the outskirts of towns Fri.
Running hare faster hare. His jumping is longer. At a small distance can reach speed up to 50-60 km/h in a straight line. Confuses the traces. Knows how to swim.
Hare quiet animals. Barely in this case, if they are injured, these animals make heart-rending clicks, also in those moments when the whole caught. The female Rusak calls offspring of their own, saying a quiet sounds. In this case, if the whole is disturbed, it will start snapping teeth. Also talk method perestukivaniem paws.
WHAT TO EAT HARE-HARE
In the summer, hare feeds on herbaceous plants and young shoots of trees and shrubs. In most cases, eating the leaves and stems, but can dig up roots. In the 2nd half of summer eats seeds (promotes their proliferation, because not all seeds are digested).
The composition of the summer diet of brown hares are very diverse — different wild (dandelion, chicory, tansy, bird Highlander, winter cress, trefoil, alfalfa) and cultural (sunflower, buckwheat, cereals) plants. Willing hare eats vegetables and melons. In winter, unlike hare, hare continues to eat seeds and rags grasses, winter, remnants of vegetable crops, digging out from under the snow.
With the deepest snow cover runs on the power of tree and shrub vegetation (shoots, bark). Most likely hare devours maple, oak, hazel, broom, Apple and pear. Aspen and white willows, favorite hare, consumes less often.
REPRODUCTION OF HARE
The duration and timing of the breeding season birds with one stone Rusakov vary dependent part of the area. In Western Europe the breeding season usually lasts from March to September. In the southern part of Ukraine the breeding cycle lasts from February to August. During this period, about 70-80 % of females able to bring 4 broods, and in years with warm winters and Renesmee in the spring and 5.
In suitable weather criteria rut of hare lasts the whole year, and 1st rabbit-hare occur in January. In the North area 1-2 litters. In the middle zone of the Russian Federation 1st mating takes place in late February or March (males active since January), 2nd — April — early may, 3 in June. 1st hares occur in April — early may, 2nd brood in late may — June (peak breeding), 3rd in August. Again zichichi mate immediately after birth, and from time to time and to them.
In General, the rut at hares-Rusakov is not so amicably as rabbits, hares, so pregnant females and bunnies you can meet earlier and later ordinary seasons. The number of hares in the litter ranges from 1 to 6 (average 2-4 Bunny). On the value of the offspring is influenced by many conditions. In General, larger broods in areas where the hares-Rusakov less reproductive cycles.
Winter, early spring and autumn broods of hare less summer — 1-2 Bunny. The greatest number of young hares are born in the 2nd litter by the time of occurrence of the abundance of green feed. On average, the hare is born 7-8 bunnies in the year, but when Renesmee spring, late autumn and suitable weather criteria, their number may increase.
females involved in reproduction with 8-9 months. The duration of pregnancy females of the hare on average 42 days, with deviations up to 2 days. For females the hare first year for the breeding season marked 1-2 offspring, seldom — 3, for females older usually 2-3 offspring.
Some females hare trying to protect bunnies or distract from the brood. Frequent protection bunnies female from birds and other predators, in other words females hares-Rusakov well-developed sense of motherhood.
A delivery female pitches without the help of others. This can be a nest of grass, a small hole or a shallow hole (in this case, if the habitat corresponds to a warm climate).
The milk of the females of a hare in terms of nutritional value and composition approaches the milk of rabbits. Fat in it, or 15.8 %, protein 12.5 %, and milk sugar is 2.1 %, ash of 1.6 %. There are small differences in content of calcium and phosphorus, which in the milk of Zaichik approximately in 2 times more.
The female hare comes to feed offspring once a day, and from time to time and seldom up to 1 times in 4 days.
There are known cases of feeding zajciami alien bunnies, provided that they are of the same age as her own, but this occurs less often than the hare. Maturity hare-hare typically achieve only the subsequent spring. Very occasionally, in the Western parts of its range, the females begin to breed in the same summer.
Known modifications hares-Rusakov with hares-Belyak eventually giving rise hares-cuffs. They were found in nature, and was received with the content of hares in the zoo. When the content of captive hares-cuffs able to breed.
THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE HARE
The growth and development of the hare runs heavily dependent on the criterion of the outer environment.
The hares appear sighted, covered with hair. The principal feature of newborn rabbits Rusakov is their ability to zataivanie. With all this they used any vault. When you try to pick up the rabbit make snorting sounds, beat off the front legs.
The internal organs of newborn rabbits Rusakov imperfect, stomach and intestinal tract is formed is not absolute.
Weight of newborn bunnies in the Ukrainian area can be 110-130, Hare in a 1st days of life short-legged, front and rear legs are almost similar, it has a disproportionately large head and Kuts torso. Of the unchanging’s teeth during this period, the hare has upper and lower incisors and sensitive speakers molars. 2nd pair of upper incisors, located behind the first, is in the alveoli. Hardly noticeable dairy predkolenie the teeth of the hare.
From the first days of life, hare observed intense growth, peaking on the 3rd or 4th day. Change the first predgornyj milk teeth at constant begins with a 6-8-th day. 2nd milk incisors change in 9-11 days. After 15 days completed changing cutters, predgornyj teeth, begins the formation of the cutting sites. With now, except milk moms, hares begin to eat the food of the young tops and leaves of herbaceous plants. To 25-30 days form the teeth of the rabbit of the hare recalls that of adults. The overall configuration of the cutting sites predgornyj and posterior teeth is no longer a semi-circular, and rectangular with small crests. At constant Samogitian on the upper incisors horizontal space, which, along with the 2nd pair of cutters located on the back, gives the incisors of the lower jaw to slide on the gums. Month old hare-hare one hundred percent run to food the herbaceous vegetation.
From 2 to 5 months, there’s been a steady increase hares-Rusakov, which ends in 8 months. By this time, the weight of the hare may be 3.2 to 3.8 kg By the end of winter is marked lowering the body weight by up to 10 %due to the preparation for reproduction and deterioration of the forage criterion.
In the growth and development of the hare distinguish several periods.
Since the birth of the hare before relative independence from the mother (up to 13 to 15-th day of life). Breast milk is the only food bunnies. 1st period is characterized by a more intense growth bunnies: they do not move much, are in temporary shelters. It starts with a change of milk teeth is unchanged.
13-15 days (body weight 300-320 g) up to 25-30 days, when the hares begin evenly to run to food greenish grassy vegetation, although milk continues to be the main food. During this period lasts milk teeth change for the same. Starts intense growth and elongation of the facial Department of the skull, the rear extremities of the hare.
With 25-30 days of life (body weight 900-950 g) up to 40 days. In connection with the end of the milk supply and the transition to independent life there has been a sharp slowdown.
After 40 days (body weight 1500-1600 A.D.) up to 5-6 months. Accompanied autumn shedding, the transition to winter meals. Characterized by moderate growth, increases locomotor activity. In nature, the criteria for the rabbit to 2 months often die in the farmland.
5-6 months (body weight of 2.8-2.9 kg) up to 8-9 months, when the animals achieve maturity, they start rutting and possible fights between males.
The period of maturity and productive multifunctional activity. The hare he begins with 7-8 months and in suitable criteria lasts up to 4-5 years.
Physiological aging (4-5 years), when the productivity of animals is reduced. When the content in captivity the longest life of the hare is 6-7 years. In nature animals are not practically live earlier age.
The number varies dependent on epidemics, starvation and agriculture. She then sharply increases, then decreases and subject to cycles. Period 1-th cycle takes an average of 8-10 years.