Swim on the rocky areas with high sun better: if seen from a distance, not only surf, but the stone itself. In cloudy weather, or closer to dusk, when the brightness of the sky brightness is much higher ground, difficult to navigate on the river: water, reflecting the sky, the light becomes monotonous. Difficult to have a raft before sunset against the sun — shines any small wave river gleams across the width, and impossible to understand anything. Hard
In the European Union, any significant break in the profile of the river where there are in the mainstream of large boulders or rock outcrops, called threshold. In Siberia similar obstacles differentiate: the threshold is usually called a short section of the channel with a pronounced shoulder formed, as a rule, bedrock, and more or less extended area in which the river drops significantly steeper than in neighboring, and in line with many boulders forming high waves, called Shiver, or Shiver. In the lower reaches of the river, where the quantity and velocity gradients are small, and the bed of the river is formed by pebbles or sand and waves are practically absent, Shiver degenerate into rolls.
Of constraints on the thresholds and Shiver is rather arbitrary, many obstacles can not be unambiguously attributed to one or the other, because there are elements of both groups. Character obstacles strongly depends on the level of water. This is reflected in the titles, when similar in nature to the various obstacles that rivers are called threshold, the Shiver. However, here are involved and linguistic traditions of the different regions. However, if we take as a basis the Siberian terminology, from the many obstacles on the river can be identified sufficiently certain thresholds and Shiver.
Shiver — the most common obstacles to mountain taiga rivers and perhaps the most interesting and challenging. For hundreds of meters to several kilometers or water rushing over rocks, the merging and forming a powerful stream with huge steep waves, then running up among the rocks, to meet again somewhere under a different shore. Constantly need to think where to go, think fast: the river is not waiting. Maneuvering between the stones, a raft suitable for plum.
right across the shallow-draft stones. The first requirement when choosing a stone, through which have to move — perhaps the presence of a thicker layer of water over him. In areas with a large drop better move over rocks situated between two large boulders. A reduction in the density clogs} gates and raise the stern water drags him through the stone. When there is no certainty that the density does not get stuck, or when the fall speed and small and the water does not rise to that, choose the safer route through the ridge approximately identical gems if raft stop and turn around even sideways, you can push through the rocks vagami.
Spread raft undesirable because of the strike on the neighboring rocks. To reduce the desire to turn the raft, when approaching the jump to keep it strictly with the flow and let the stones underneath symmetrically. During the passage through the stone both oars must actively oppose the spread, and to great effect Zagrebnov front rowed better look back and anticipating the stern desire to step aside, his work rowed without waiting command pilot. Movement helps to preserve Comley ago given direction, but only when moving through deep-lying rocks.
Another characteristic element Shiver — wave. From the perspective of a coup for a large raft dangerous only high waves with steep slopes, especially if they do not stand still, and
Fear that someone snuck wave raft, especially with large, do not: while the raft floats, water velocity relative to its not great. Waves just swipe on the nose when he zanyrivaet and mid vessel and feed almost dipped into the still water, and stand on your feet is not difficult. The task of the crew — not emerge because of the floating man who would not hold, can be attributed to the side very easily.
Serious risk that the waves interfere with rowing, and if this is not taken into account, they can mix all the cards. At moderate wave can work Grebe, but because of the pitching arm that falls below the knees, then rises above the head, and. the effectiveness of this rowing is not great. When waves gush through podgrebitsu, bow stroke oars forced to miss some strokes, and at still higher waves suspend work until podgrebitsa not come out of the water. Raft in this case it is necessary to conduct one rowed back, holding the right direction. Rafts with a solid reserve buoyancy allow paddling at high waves. Fortunately, the waves that interfere with rowing, are only in the deep troughs Shiver, where stones are usually small. If the crest of the high waves still meet healthy boulder, it can not be avoided with a few strokes. In the trough water escapes from both sides, aiming at its middle, drag the raft there, and have to work hard to escape from the crest of the waves, especially at the primary site. At the end of the ridge out of it is easy — it’s usually faster jet with slow flow on the sides. Here, using the velocity difference, can easily move back to either side.
If sag is not an end in sight Shiver, if it is so steep that some of it is hidden behind the first ridge, if there are too many stones, if the river goes into the canyon, as well as in all cases where you feel unsure, do bother to explore. Dive into complex Shiver at random — not always the fastest way to sail to the end.
Do not bother before the Shiver and have to catch go to the opposite bank of the river, if the visit would be more comfortable there. When the front is not visible high Bohm, bother to the shore, which increase where water comes close to the terrace — top better inspect the river. When the front is expected Boma, bother to lower the inner bank: bomam swarming up, you lose a lot of time.
Shiver of less than 1 km inspect immediately from start to finish. If it is longer, then inspect and pass it need piecemeal. If you have been down about 1 km (particularly difficult areas even less), and the end of Shiver is not visible, start to look for a place where you can easily stick so as to allow easy set at the next obstacle, spend raft through this section and proceed to the next inspection .
Watch Long Shiver is not fully rational. First, after an inspection of 5-7 km and return back already hungry, and not to swim, and secondly, the verdict is declared complex surface area after inspection, it is often too categorical:. Passages found later, a careful study of the site and discussion of many options. Better not go on about the curiosity and calmly examine and pass for distilled overtake. Exceptions are canyons. They usually are not too long, and not immediately at least in outline view to the end, especially if the river is traversed for the first time or the water level is significantly different from that which was in your predecessors. Locals and geologists usually do not climb the canyons, and there can be anything up to the unknown and uncharted waterfall; moreover, you need to have an idea about the location of places where you can get ashore in case of an accident at the beginning of the canyon.
Shiver conveniently explore the complex in two steps. Going down the river, reveal an overall picture of Shiver and tentatively scheduled its passage strategy (possibly with options). Then, coming to the end or to the place of harassment, turn back and look at all the passages in detail. This is easier to do, looking at the river against the tide: it is easier to determine the depth of the pitfalls, especially with the rapid flow and abundance of waves. Do not try to remember all the stones on the river. Schedule shore route and remember just coming to him stones, and ‘maybe only stones landmarks past which have to swim or paddle from which in one way or another. River and, in particular, rocks up and down the river to look different, so part of the route and selecting peredvinuvshis up the river, go to the water and look at the stones on top of benchmarks, with the approach. With this you can simply do not see. Then go back and tie stones to typical coastal features, taking the distance from the shore rocks, for example:
Shiver can usually identify several routes. Criterion well chosen route — the minimum number of maneuvers raft and therefore maximum use of natural water flow direction. You can define it by the breakers and the foam floating on the eye. Apply for this useless sticks and branches — until the middle they are still not dokinesh. Routes of roughly equal preference should be given to that which passes close to your shore: it you can see the detail more accurately stand, and if the landing is always nicer to be closer to land.
Sometimes come across such complex Shiver that have long to run around to find at least some passage. In such situations, try, if possible, to cross to the other side and look out; if below Shiver river turns, go to the place and look at the rotation Shiver along it — then may show passages that were not visible from the side; Climb the bong, even if it is not contrary Shiver: height with intricate river looks like a clear pattern, which is easy to understand. Just do not forget to attach the route to see landmarks from the water. If not boma, use a tall tree.
Tangled or sketch a long Shiver. An example of such a scheme with the symbols shown in Fig. 36. Scheme easier to read, if it is done 2-3 flowers. Since the scale should be large, charting in parts on adjacent pages notebook, numbering areas. Border areas should serve as the most simple place Shiver. Scheme are at least two — a pilot and one of the rowers feed: complex plots sometimes did not allow the pilot to escape from the surveillance and control of the river raft, so when passing scheme keeps Shiver partner and at the request of the pilot reminds him of the nature of the expected obstacles.
Thresholds, according to our terminology, characterized by powerful, pronounced sink. Draining can be one, and can be divided fragments of rock into 2-3 pieces, but each piece is usually clean, free of stones. Shore zone threshold, usually formed of crystalline rocks, the river is narrow in places the water leans heavily on coastal cliffs or boulders. If the threshold has several drains cascaded, they often are not against each other. Water, speeding on a plum, hits the shore or fragment of rock, stop, and next, a new sink. Sometimes thresholds are located in the canyons, or as they are called in Siberia
Fig. 36 Pilot scheme plot Shiver (compiled without complying with the real of the width and length of the river, the size of the stones, it is desirable to use different colors — in brackets):
1 — serial number of this section Shiver (red); 2 landmark serving span start (red); 3-bong (black) Boma are major landmarks on the route and in the reports; 4 — bluff several meters (black), 5 — impassable rocky shoal (black); b — Dam (black); 7 — wave up to 1 m (blue). Designation used when navigating on a small raft, 8 — waves 1-2 meters high (blue); 9 — wave height of more than 2 m (blue); 10 — flow direction (blue), 11 — disorderly flow area or standing water (blue); 12 — clamp (blue); 13 — Drain (blue); 14 — stone surface (black). The icon size in an arbitrary scale reflects its value. Stone surface qualifies as if he when looking downstream seen protruding from the water. If it is covered with water and upwind
Thresholds must-viewing. Because of the small width of the river, even a slight change in the nature of water flow threshold may change beyond recognition, so rely on descriptions or stories impossible. For the same reason, the threshold should be held on the day of inspection. If this is inconvenient, will have to carefully note the water level near the camp and in the case of a change in its next day — repeat inspection.