Creator metal

    Konstantin Pavlovich
Polenov (1835-1908) Ural metallurgist. He
developed a method for production of reinforced
iron rails and Bessemer process
liquid siliceous iron
preheating it in the flame
so-called reverberatory furnace Russian
Bessemer process.

    Years of teaching

    He is not thinking be
metallurgist. Even born in places far from
metallurgical centers in Kostroma
province, the son of poor provincial
Secretary Kineschemskogo County. In his father’s estate
young Polenov spent his childhood years, then
graduated from the district school and high schools in the city of Kostroma.
Skint went to Moscow. Earned
lessons from Bykovskikh.

    Among the students was Polenova
and future owner of the Nizhny Tagil factories PP
Demidov, familiarity with which the teacher
proved useful, led him later on
Ural plants.

    Their outstanding abilities
Polenov used to produce brilliant
education. In 1852, he joined the
Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow
University, where he received a scholarship Demidov.
As a student, he worked hard, and during
exams went to the board and posted without
training. Four years later he graduated from Polenov
university with a large gold medal.

    With a deep desire to
mathematical sciences. Polenov entered for
listening to lectures on the surveying department
Academy of the General Staff, where for outstanding achievements in
passage of a university course was admitted,
is not an example to others, without the service in
troops. After the academy for the brilliant
Polenov success was recorded on a gold plaque and
left at the Pulkovo Observatory to
prepare here to receive professorial

    During the year, Polenov
worked at the observatory. However, the difficult
material conditions forced him to look for more
of employment. His former student, now
The young owner of Nizhny Tagil plants, PP
Demidov Polenov offered a teaching position
Vyisky at a technical school in Nizhny Tagil.
Polenov accepted the offer and in 1859 took
as head of the school, where he taught

    Seemed to come deprivation
all hope of success in life is a person, double
He graduated with honors from institutions of higher education
and became a teacher in a provincial school
institution. However Polenov proved that their
capacity, he is not buried in the ground, they found
applying a new work area, and became
prominent figure in the factory, added a bright
page in the history of Russian metallurgy. Forty
years of his life he gave the Ural factories.

    In the Urals

    From 1862 and until the spring of 1864
Polenov was the ruler-dependence of Shaitansky
Mining Plant. Here he found the visit Demidov
described DN Mamin-Siberian in "Mountain
nest". Polenov there appears under the name of
Vershinin, and lodged a noble factory owners
soup of the grayling.

    In 1864 Polenov received
place the ruler and Nizhnesaldinskogo
Verkhnyaya plants that were part of the same
Nizhny Tagil area. In Lower Salda Polenov
served for 38 years and are fully apparent
its ability to machinery.

    Do saldintsev preserved
legend of Polenovo. Once factory workers dropped
in the snow hot rail. Came to the rescue wizard
usual penalty threatened everyone, but it
turned out in unexpected ways. The scene
saw the lord of the plant. He told the workers:

    Come on, cut off from
rail piece and a half inches, check on
favor if he went snow bath.

    The study
showed that the strength of the rail, cooled
moisture, much higher than the conventional one. Results
accidental experience Polenov reinforced calculations and
proposed cooling each rail in cast iron
decks. Such a method of hardening was rolled
applied for the first time and immediately received universal
recognition. It is used on the modern

relsoprokatnoe production, Flight applied
device "photometer" with stearic candle for
determine the temperature at a scrap rails

    Konstantin Pavlovich
acquainted with the foreign experience in the industry. In
the end of the 1860s he made a six-month
tour of European countries. Managing
Demidov factories made him a whole
instruction. It was punished, that he, Polenov,
thoroughly found out the domain,
steelmaking, rolling production. In
Sweden in particular detail wormed to dressing
iron. All seen and heard well
remember and describe in detail in the report.

    In the 1870s Tagil
Plants take a large order for the supply rails
for St. Petersburg-Moscow, and then
Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod and other railroads.
Development of railway transport increased
quality requirements of the rails. Abroad for
ceased to roll iron rails, they were replaced
steel. It made factory management
build Bessemer shop at Nizhnesaldinskom
plant, which became at that time mainly
relsoprokatnym. Organize the work of the new shop
had Polenov.

    In the case of the workers as
factory steward Polenov was a supporter of
their provision to the extent of the then opportunities
first introduced to them clothing. Outstanding
metallurgist shared the views
Utopians socialists. He tried to hold
social transformation: on his own initiative
opened a savings and loan association and
founded a society of consumers. As an elected
member of the Zemstvo Polenov achieved conversion
Zemstvo school in a two-year college.

    Ruler start to teach
factory population to agriculture. He personally
showed an example of how to run the economy, applied
quite a shock many agronomic techniques
persistently instilled into agriculture machines.
Drawn them from the United States worked binders
on cleared fields along the forest Tagil

    Agronomic experiments
Polenova upset was common earlier opinions on
impossibility of agriculture in the conditions
Nizhny Tagil district. He led several
new varieties of rye and oats, proved that the Urals
the earth will give birth to good. Example from Polenova in
arable farming found imitators, and
agricultural occupations captures more
the number of inhabitants of the plant. Near the village there
good arable land, where sown rye, barley and oats.

    Descending from the Pulkovo
heights, Polenov hit in the Urals. Here he
and made the main business of his life. It was
associated with the process of producing steel.


    Englishman Henry Bessemer in
1855 received his first patent for a new
a method of producing iron and steel, named
Bessemer. Russian steelmakers immediately
drew attention to the new process. Already in 1856
experiments were conducted at a number of plants, and in 1875
built "Bessemer plant" Lower
Salda. The design of this plant was purchased from
French engineer F. Walton. France
sent for training Bessemer Wizard
Tagil factories Anatoly Zlobin, Michael
Sakantsev and mechanical draftsman places

    In Lower Salda a start
new shop came the author of the project Walton.
Trained in France Ural metallurgy
dealt with a cast iron composition. Now these same
irons were lowly. Walton was afraid of them
overheating, saving silicon and manganese,
necessary for conducting heat. Such
"caution" did not give the expected
results. Sometimes rails treated five times
more expensive than their purchase price. Having
relative success in the processing of the Urals
irons, Walton left. Shop worked uncertainly.

    Factory office referred
Polenov superintendence Bessemer shop. He
was again sent for ten months for
border "to get acquainted with the new
improvements in the iron and steel
productions with foreign factories".
Ural metallurgist visited the factories of France,
England, Sweden. Watching there for converting,
he came to the conclusion that the success of the production
depends on the process temperature. Returning
home, he did not forget about it.

    Once in a retort struck
glands, and iron overdone in the oven for two hours.
Masters were afraid that the metal is hot, and
want to throw it away. Learning of this, Polenov
offered still blow metal. Operation
against expectations failed brilliantly:
Bessemer passed hot metal turned
good quality. During purge in a metal
developed such a high temperature that
converter add rail pieces.

    Polenov used this
case and put into practice the overheating lowly
of cast iron, thereby ushering in a new
Russian version of the converter process
Bessemer process. Several years later Russian
metallurgist Groom Grzhimailo came to work in
Lower Salda, gave a theoretical justification
new version of the Bessemer process, proving that
Salda way "is completely
independent type converting, having all
data for a very wide distribution".
Later Groom Grzhimailo wrote an article about it
method in Bessemer "Mining Journal".
Justifying the theoretical aspect of the process, he
also demonstrated the economic benefits of such
a method of steel production.

    Together with
Groom Grzhimailo

    Prominent Russian
metallurgist Vladimir E. Groom Grzhimailo
by hydraulic theory calculation of flame
furnaces, 22 years working in the Ural factories.
Few years of his life in Lower Salda passed
together with Polenov.

    Speaking in his autobiography
this period of life, Vladimir E. wrote:
"Here I found a man who had a decisive
influence on my work. It was very clever and
enemy walking opinions Konstantin Pavlovich

    In his memoirs,
Vladimir E. devoted an entire chapter
Polenov ruler under whom
served. In the early days of their relationship there were
quite complex. They often argued, and then
Vladimir E. said:

    I am not your arguments
never agree. You ruler: order –
will be performed. But I warn you, nothing
good will come.

    Yes I do not want to order, I
I want to convince you.

    It’s impossible.

    Oh, what a stubborn!

    And the conversation stopped,
orders of the ruler does not let the shaft, and the case
postponed. After some time assistant
again reported to him the new circumstances, it
discussed again and decide to consensus.

    Groom Grzhimailo often
recalled that gave him a job with Polenov. "He
approached the question so original, so
suddenly and is so simple and clear that from a conversation with
I hated it a pleasant experience. For me
Polenov represented an excellent school. Firstly,
talk to him without thinking it was impossible.
Secondly, its consistency, except
when he was preparing its findings to the
previously chosen by the conclusion was higher
all praise. If we add to this the fact that all
orders in the factory have been strictly conceived,
relations are regulated, the farm
perfect order, the stubbornness Polenova
could "tolerate".

    Elsewhere Vladimir
E. marked indifference Polenov the technique,
explaining that the duties
steward was for him only a means to
life. Groom Grzhimailo hinted at the lack of
Special Education at Polenova said
what the hell he did not know how and even
stated: "It was a real gentleman, a landowner and

    But here Grum Grzhimailo
contradicts himself, his other
statements. Of course, these criticisms are unfair
against Polenov, who made a significant contribution
it is in the technical development of the Urals
metallurgy. It may be added that Polenov
Lower Salda built four blast furnaces, for
blast heating devices introduced Cowper, why
blast furnace plant Nizhnesaldinskogo
It took one of the first places in the Urals in its
technical level.

    Himself Vladimir E.
admitted: "At school I had Polenova
the most beneficial effect. I learned to think and
think through to the end. Developed in me
striking "integrity" thinking,
as an explicit protest against "curvature"
Polenov. Finally, I lost the habit of speaking first and
then think, because with so Constantine Pavlovich
say it was impossible. Alive and begin to catch

    Groom Grzhimailo
suggests that much of the Polenov
borrowed his other disciples: AE
Melnikov, NG Babenko, FP Tsilliakus, VM
Kazarinov. It was a real school for
rulers, the only one in Nizhny Tagil
District, for the rest of the employees were on
plants are very weak.

    Magic Lantern

    It is known that the radical
lighting solution has been found
Russian inventor PN Yablochkova. He in 1876
year proposed arc lamp without regulator –
"electric candle". Lamps in Yablochkova
the end of the 1870s appeared on the streets and in
public places many capitals of the world of their
called "Russian light". They penetrated into the
industrial buildings larger plants, on
construction sites, shipyards. In 1876 there was a goal
the first power plant in St. Petersburg for
Lighting candles Yablochkova Foundry Bridge. In
this area worked and KP Polenov, generally
who had a special love for electricity.
There is evidence that the electric
light flashed in Lower Salda earlier than in most
capital of the Russian Empire.

    Catching practical
the use of electricity, Polenov put
various experiments. So he invented a special
musical instrument "melodramas",
driven by electric current.

    It is interesting to include
message to his biographer: "Resourcefulness
KP Polenov was not limited to the factory area.
He worked a lot on the practical application of
electricity. Long before he came Yablochkova
electric lighting, and Salda office
back in the seventies by evening light
electric light, when they were not in any
of European cities. Its electrical
lighting Konstantin Pavlovich applied for
magic lantern and received by this
opportunity to use opaque
pictures of exactly the same with the

    The source
electricity generated for them
fixture, magic lantern,
overhead projector and melodroma Polenov applied
galvanic battery. Not excluded
the possibility that there are more documents
its description inventions including
electric torch.

    When Nizhnesaldinskomu
plant turned a hundred years, the dam factory
Pond was a capsule according to the custom of those times
– original premise descendants. Perhaps in the
This capsule contains documents that can give
the answer to many of the concerns of historians

N. Mezenin.

References: Newspaper "Taghilsky
working" from 1/27/84.

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