Somehow most of the Urals regional specialists believe that at the beginning of the XVIII century in the Urals built or state factories or private, which patronage Peter Belikogo made it possible to compete with the stategovernmental enterprises. This is not so. Were then desperate people that founded entirely at your own risk IUmetallurgical plants, boldly challenging the monopoly and the treasury, and Demidov power.
Among them is the breeder Fedor Young. His little factories, of course, can not be compared with the giants of the Treasury and Demidov, however, as evidenced by the AA Preobrazhensky who made fundamental selection Swedations on its activities, life Fedor Ivanovic Young gives a fairly accurate idea of «as Programmedinitiatives by linking the first industrialists in the Urals» in the earliest years of the XVIII century. Furthermore, it is inconceivable neremenchivaya life Fedor vivid illustration with scattered mores of the time, and the story about the life of a highly instructive.
So who is this young Fedor?
Even by a few crumbs of information, desperate, devilshabashny adventurer, a man quite in the spirit of rugged erhee Peter the Great. At the end of the XVII century (in his propertynym words) it flickers in the region of Astrakhan, where before he couldand a look at the local Selitrennoe plants, and wander with the local outlaws. Similarly, no one knows what for, but probably just for questionable business with walking lyudE, Theodore Young plunge in Tsarevo dungeons, tortured and even branded on the left cheek apparently «funny» his case had a heavy weight and character. It was the first but not the last of his acquaintance with the jail.
In the XVIII century the new Fedor Young already cheersrings. In 1701, he was exiled to «saltworks town» to Ufa. Since then, he had called himself a resident of Ufa. Life of an exile, of course, was not in his nature. He escapes from the South Urals places and declared in Moscow. How, how he, branding, managed to break the Sexton Inrefusal ore affairs than he deceived the king, is not yet clear, but January 23, 1704 Fedor I. Young sexchaet nominal royal decree, which allowed him timevertyvat rudopoiskovye work on copper, iron, gold, silver, generally all that turned up under the arm on exten-tion area of state-owned and private lands in the counties of Lika-ha, Vyatka, Kungur. If Young found such ores, he was entitled at his own expense to put plants to melt and process them. People to plant it afterDov hire only freestyle. But he found oresnye space allowed to develop 30 years, and a fee from the factory, depending on the type of ore, promised not to take 4 or 6 years.
You see, unlike some of the king’s favor to DemiDov: either you lift money that the opera for the first time, nor the vast territory for personal use, not a run-down villages with fortified or generous benefits to tax.
Nevertheless, Young was able to arrange his affairs. He was an adventurer, though, but not reckless. And about the Ural borichness of something he already knew beforehand. Was able with the money somehow get out, this recent Branding exile. In Februaryary 1703 managed to take Ivan Patrushev (mountainsAffairs of Supervisors) one hundred rubles, which pledged to Istratit on the organization of the delivery of iron ore plants in factbolskom or Kungur Counties.
Of course, these one hundred rubles for a serious search for ores withbuilding a decent base construction of the plant was not enough. Then Fedor lays all of his possessions (when it only managed to amass?) In Moscow and scraped yet sufficientlydetailed start-up capital, with the Tsar diploma rushes to the Urals. Apparently, in his servitude ears flew enough accurate information about the places where iron ore is sufficientbut to lay the plant. In general, Young was a great weightter mine he needed information. It’s amazing how he was able to go into the confidence of the people, we can say even specially learned it, which led him later to another prison stints.
But here until he came to the Urals, and immediately began to think about a way to take possession of land for the construction of the plant on it. Here he is having difficulty. Imperial decree plant something he was allowed to have, but then the conditions of the Urals is so complexwere that turn up anywhere without protection was impossible.
With Stroganov lands his shuganuli, elsewhere zemcal chiefs nesusvetnye bribes extorted.
But here, twisted Young. Picked up and just bought ESTATEcurrent land not far from he found deposits of iron ore near the river Mazuevki (45 miles from Kungura).
On August 1, 1704 on a site already hard at work pyNMS need wood, built the house, dumped Ore, preparing coal. December 30 this year, the plant produced the first metal. And MoLodoi, almost from the first revenue bought in 1706 laidtion in Moscow property has also designed the expansion of business. Only further more and more money ingested plant device. Then in 1707 he was invited companions, money became easier, and seemed to work, Rich.
But 1707 was again for Young fatal.
His work is lucky swells around him untill flashesbrozhelatelstva. Indeed, for melting, forges wellwives coal means surrounding forest was cut down that the basetional quarrel with his blizzhivuschimi peasants who, by the way, that the forest themselves used to gradually melt for their needs the same ore.
Young wound up a good relationship with local prospectors his quarrel with the growing Demidovs, totorye well aware that the welfare of metallurgicalFIR plants is based on a reliable source of raw materials, and does not want to endure a competitor who took the ore is not so yesLeko from the places where they gathered to put plants. And youbeat Demidov did the king’s decree, limiting the possibilityof Young. Nonetheless Plant Young to work, yougiving a lot of products (4—6000 pounds in year Only bloomery iron, and was still steel), bringing profit.
But enemies do not give up hope completely destroy both the plant and the youngest. Such a possibility they Representatwound in January 1707. In those days, Young returned to the Urals from a long trip to the capital and other places where atfound a large set of the right for the plant expansion. All this he sent to eighteen sleigh thoroughly loadedGOVERNMENTAL. And some Dobrodey-farmers denounced customs fees that the convoy passed Young Kungur customs and
not pay due taxes. He complained governor. Immediately told off was a chase. Officials stopped the convoy and archers young and inspected his luggage. And, as expected, found to cling to anything. On the sled hadsmiling powder that Young wanted to use for underminingva solid mass of ore. A powder, as well as any military supplies, was then a strict accounting item. Bezzapisny its passage was an important public offense. This was the reason for the arrest of the young and the beginning of the investigation. And when the investigation began, the governor gave the order to make a carefultive search of all property of the Young. And here is something fromWing of the evidence, which is once again plunged it into uziliSchool. Among the papers found Fyodor wrote it by hand «ZagoIntercoms letters», A few notebooks, where the breeder kept recipes love spell to his people in general and women in specialof. Forerunner of Dale Carnegie in those primeval times do not understand the contents of the hard-core notebooks considered heresy and posles almost eight months in prison at the SiberianScoma order verdict: Young «Batog beat mercilessly and those letters on his back burn» Sentence underPrince wrote MP Gagarin.
All these many months, until there was an investigation, the factory did not work, and the property of the Young, sealed, waiting for solutionof the court. A resourceful agile acquired by a merchant was a lot. His house was full cup. Good Closet franctsuzskogo, Hungarian and Polish-cut dresses, Qamzifishing with silver buttons, German shoes. He had even set pyatigolosy body and the table served shiCarney delicacy for that time sugar. And, incidentallyti, of the described Fyodor Ivanovich Young havesCTBA were books, and counting board, and board training. He was not bad, we can say with European education: in his letters and official papers are common description technicalKie terms used in Saxon precepts of mining, and he apparently tried to give good aboutand formation of their children.
Fedor, endured a whip and a bonfire on his back, was released from prison. And immediately began to try to return the plant and property. However, the first such An attemptku he did in August 1707, sitting behind bars. Tollto September 7, 1708 Prince Gagarin ordered the return of his property and plant.
It would seem that the dark days have passed, start, however, posle large losses again work to earn. Yes viewbut the fate of this came Fyodor Ivanovich failed this time to safely get in Kungurian forests.
Again have caught his enemies on their existing trifle. One of the conditions of release from prison, Young was necessarilyment to find some deposits of saltpeter. Fedor Ivanovich found such a place, which is informed Kungurskiy th governor. He sent to inspect the said deposit. Waspsmotrschikam did not like it they say, there will be little Selitrennoe stone. Nevertheless ore and rock samples on theslalom in Moscow. They got back to Gagarin, and the prince did not recognize the right of ore samples, and called all the blank is generatedDoi. For the same as it dared to send young, told him to send his wife and children into exile in Mangazeya.
Such a harsh sentence is not more than the machinations of enemies, can not be explained. Fraudulent samples in its Moscowzilis carts and nothing, all got away, and the correctbut that does not discourage the search. This is on the one handus. On the other hand it is not clear how Young could have been mistaken in determining nitrate. After all, his faithful assistant in the affairs of the wife was considered a major specialist among experts is in testing nitrate, and its expert assessments on these issues have often asked the authorities
It happened like that and have to rot Young family in Mangazeya.
But again, they toyed fate. That fate, which once again punished him again threw him a unique chance to get out of trouble. It so happened that when it decides to GPsgrew up on his punishment, he was summoned to the capital. And then broughtDoes the order of copper ore, and there was a master hand to try it out. Ore is interested for some reason, Peter I and angrily demanded to immediately identify the quality of itsCTBA.
And then remember the clerks about Fedor.
And until the end of his days he could not forget young as «aboutshlogo 710 years tried ore during its imperial veamounts. And shatters your Hands of His Majesty tutten (ogarysh when melting), and found that Koenig (wren decoction of metal), and to rejoice exceedingly, and promised Welcome, and wrote in his book, a commemorative our name»
That’s what saved him. The king could not afford to at a time when the country desperately needed a metal knowledgeable person abouthlazhdalsya links. He tells Fedor take on state service. And the same Prince Gagarin, so harsh to the youngmu, already prescribes him for a pretty decent salary of 200 rubles a year to go to the Urals, and almost all its territory tells organize search any ore, but if he finds it, and build a sovereign plants. That’s really here Molohome experience happened, what it means to favor the Tsar. And the peasants Kungurian allowed in the original job to take, and was allowed to take the necessary gear to search. And barely had time to dictate the young set of tools and supplies for nearly two hundred and fifty rubles, immediately they were delivered to him, only ezzhaj hurry. However, not
liberating, he was assigned «decree to melt allKie ore and IP Kungurian County to the decree does not leave». Back to him and Mazuevsky plant breeder back on the horse. He immediately returningis in Kungur. Neoborvanties with the local oreznattsami allowed otysCach copper deposits to them in abundance to supply them quickly erected IUdeplavilny plant. Went with a metal on the sovereign’s needs. And put the young plant not far from him returned Mazuevskogo ironworks.
The work was in full swing, and metal products were profits grew, and seemed to life Fedor finally came in the normmal direction.
But such was not the nature of our adventurer to the ACTCoyne live. Received free labor, Young CPADhu remembered the old dreams expand Mazuevsky plant. Not putting in a hurry notify authorities prederzhaing, it quickly attaches to the factory shop and organizes reAffairs of iron in to the current hammer. The state began to receive additional sheet and prutovoe iron.
Enemies, of course, not asleep. They realized that even though thsudarstvu from the activities of a young one good, but, of course, and he pribytok. And it was a bone in the throat. Found «good man»Whispered who need Kungur. Those not slowedLily send denunciation Siberian Department. From there, Immediatebut rushed important official steward Peter Konoplin. Not worth the labor to install: Yes, built «Molotova granary» this restless cocky rascal, and without any official order. That Moscow bureaucrats recould not bear. Theodore Young was ordered to take StraMs. He spent more than a year in prison shackles Kungurian and then again sent into exile in a deathtrap place in birch.
What, do you think it has calmed down on the violent nature?
No, not like that it was a man.
The need for knowledgeable people throughout Russia then was great. And after a while, when passion subsidedwhether, Young attracted a master goldsmith in papersyou Tobolsk. And in 1718 he was working for the factory master Uktusskom Copper smelting.
In 1720, Peter I in some way know about new zloklyucheniyah his old acquaintance, and demands that it immedi-ately sent to St. Petersburg, it is seen again was rushed wellwives. Prior to that, Young was able to ensure that his business engaged in VN Tatischev, saying, falsely accused and ask faithspull the plant. Tatischev, although the evidence is not preservedfriendly attitude to his breeder decided to satisfy his troubles. Yes only the Tatishcheva Demidovcal machinations pushed from the Ural Affairs. And bring the plant Young Berg-board decided to do only after 1722
Mazuevsky plant was in operation almost all the XVIII century. And the samelezo altered his clandestinely delivered Molototion production and done it equipment for DrewGIH Ural factories.
Fedor himself lived to a ripe old age. Forwater it got later in the management of his grandson Michael Yaryshkinu.
A memory of the breeder lived for a long time. On the plans in 1773 put them on the river for an iron Mazuevkewaters named «old factory Theodore Young».