Fedor Young

Somehow most of the Urals regional specialists believe that at the beginning of the XVIII century in the Urals built or state factories or private, which patronage Peter Be­likogo made it possible to compete with the state­governmental enterprises. This is not so. Were then desperate people that founded entirely at your own risk IU­metallurgical plants, boldly challenging the monopoly and the treasury, and Demidov power.

Among them is the breeder Fedor Young. His little factories, of course, can not be compared with the giants of the Treasury and Demidov, however, as evidenced by the AA Pre­obrazhensky who made fundamental selection Sweda­tions on its activities, life Fedor Ivanovic Young gives a fairly accurate idea of «as Programmed­initiatives by linking the first industrialists in the Urals» in the earliest years of the XVIII century. Furthermore, it is inconceivable ne­remenchivaya life Fedor vivid illustration with scattered mores of the time, and the story about the life of a highly instructive.

So who is this young Fedor?

Even by a few crumbs of information, desperate, devil­shabashny adventurer, a man quite in the spirit of rugged er­hee Peter the Great. At the end of the XVII century (in his property­nym words) it flickers in the region of Astrakhan, where before he could­and a look at the local Selitrennoe plants, and wander with the local outlaws. Similarly, no one knows what for, but probably just for questionable business with walking lyud­E, Theodore Young plunge in Tsarevo dungeons, tortured and even branded on the left cheek apparently «funny» his case had a heavy weight and character. It was the first but not the last of his acquaintance with the jail.

In the XVIII century the new Fedor Young already cheers­rings. In 1701, he was exiled to «saltworks town» to Ufa. Since then, he had called himself a resident of Ufa. Life of an exile, of course, was not in his nature. He escapes from the South Urals places and declared in Moscow. How, how he, branding, managed to break the Sexton In­refusal ore affairs than he deceived the king, is not yet clear, but January 23, 1704 Fedor I. Young sex­chaet nominal royal decree, which allowed him time­vertyvat rudopoiskovye work on copper, iron, gold, silver, generally all that turned up under the arm on exten-­tion area of ​​state-owned and private lands in the counties of Lika-ha, Vyatka, Kungur. If Young found such ores, he was entitled at his own expense to put plants to melt and process them. People to plant it after­Dov hire only freestyle. But he found ores­nye space allowed to develop 30 years, and a fee from the factory, depending on the type of ore, promised not to take 4 or 6 years.

You see, unlike some of the king’s favor to Demi­Dov: either you lift money that the opera for the first time, nor the vast territory for personal use, not a run-down villages with fortified or generous benefits to tax.

Nevertheless, Young was able to arrange his affairs. He was an adventurer, though, but not reckless. And about the Ural bo­richness of something he already knew beforehand. Was able with the money somehow get out, this recent Branding exile. In February­ary 1703 managed to take Ivan Patrushev (mountains­Affairs of Supervisors) one hundred rubles, which pledged to Istra­tit on the organization of the delivery of iron ore plants in fact­bolskom or Kungur Counties.

Of course, these one hundred rubles for a serious search for ores with­building a decent base construction of the plant was not enough. Then Fedor lays all of his possessions (when it only managed to amass?) In Moscow and scraped yet sufficiently­detailed start-up capital, with the Tsar diploma rushes to the Urals. Apparently, in his servitude ears flew enough accurate information about the places where iron ore is sufficient­but to lay the plant. In general, Young was a great weight­ter mine he needed information. It’s amazing how he was able to go into the confidence of the people, we can say even spe­cially learned it, which led him later to another prison stints.

But here until he came to the Urals, and immediately began to think about a way to take possession of land for the construction of the plant on it. Here he is having difficulty. Imperial decree plant something he was allowed to have, but then the conditions of the Urals is so complex­were that turn up anywhere without protection was impossible.

With Stroganov lands his shuganuli, elsewhere zem­cal chiefs nesusvetnye bribes extorted.

But here, twisted Young. Picked up and just bought ESTATE­current land not far from he found deposits of iron ore near the river Mazuevki (45 miles from Kungura).

On August 1, 1704 on a site already hard at work py­NMS need wood, built the house, dumped Ore, preparing coal. December 30 this year, the plant produced the first metal. And Mo­Lodoi, almost from the first revenue bought in 1706 laid­tion in Moscow property has also designed the expansion of business. Only further more and more money ingested plant device. Then in 1707 he was invited companions, money became easier, and seemed to work, Rich.

But 1707 was again for Young fatal.

His work is lucky swells around him untill flashes­brozhelatelstva. Indeed, for melting, forges well­wives coal means surrounding forest was cut down that the base­tional quarrel with his blizzhivuschimi peasants who, by the way, that the forest themselves used to gradually melt for their needs the same ore.

Young wound up a good relationship with local prospectors his quarrel with the growing Demidovs, to­torye well aware that the welfare of metallurgical­FIR plants is based on a reliable source of raw materials, and does not want to endure a competitor who took the ore is not so yes­Leko from the places where they gathered to put plants. And you­beat Demidov did the king’s decree, limiting the possibility­of Young. Nonetheless Plant Young to work, you­giving a lot of products (4—6000 pounds in year Only bloomery iron, and was still steel), bringing profit.

But enemies do not give up hope completely destroy both the plant and the youngest. Such a possibility they Representat­wound in January 1707. In those days, Young returned to the Urals from a long trip to the capital and other places where at­found a large set of the right for the plant expansion. All this he sent to eighteen sleigh thoroughly loaded­GOVERNMENTAL. And some Dobrodey-farmers denounced customs fees that the convoy passed Young Kungur customs and

not pay due taxes. He complained governor. Immediately told off was a chase. Officials stopped the convoy and archers young and inspected his luggage. And, as expected, found to cling to anything. On the sled had­smiling powder that Young wanted to use for undermining­va solid mass of ore. A powder, as well as any military supplies, was then a strict accounting item. Bezzapisny its passage was an important public offense. This was the reason for the arrest of the young and the beginning of the investigation. And when the investigation began, the governor gave the order to make a careful­tive search of all property of the Young. And here is something from­Wing of the evidence, which is once again plunged it into uzili­School. Among the papers found Fyodor wrote it by hand «Zago­Intercoms letters», A few notebooks, where the breeder kept recipes love spell to his people in general and women in special­of. Forerunner of Dale Carnegie in those primeval times do not understand the contents of the hard-core notebooks considered heresy and pos­les almost eight months in prison at the Siberian­Scoma order verdict: Young «Batog beat mercilessly and those letters on his back burn» Sentence under­Prince wrote MP Gagarin.

All these many months, until there was an investigation, the factory did not work, and the property of the Young, sealed, waiting for solution­of the court. A resourceful agile acquired by a merchant was a lot. His house was full cup. Good Closet franc­tsuzskogo, Hungarian and Polish-cut dresses, Qamzi­fishing with silver buttons, German shoes. He had even set pyatigolosy body and the table served shi­Carney delicacy for that time sugar. And, incidentally­ti, of the described Fyodor Ivanovich Young haves­CTBA were books, and counting board, and board training. He was not bad, we can say with European education: in his letters and official papers are common description technical­Kie terms used in Saxon precepts of mining, and he apparently tried to give good about­and formation of their children.

Fedor, endured a whip and a bonfire on his back, was released from prison. And immediately began to try to return the plant and property. However, the first such An attempt­ku he did in August 1707, sitting behind bars. Toll­to September 7, 1708 Prince Gagarin ordered the return of his property and plant.

It would seem that the dark days have passed, start, however, pos­le large losses again work to earn. Yes view­but the fate of this came Fyodor Ivanovich failed this time to safely get in Kungurian forests.

Again have caught his enemies on their existing trifle. One of the conditions of release from prison, Young was necessarily­ment to find some deposits of saltpeter. Fe­dor Ivanovich found such a place, which is informed Kungurskiy th governor. He sent to inspect the said deposit. Wasps­motrschikam did not like it they say, there will be little Selitrennoe stone. Nevertheless ore and rock samples on the­slalom in Moscow. They got back to Gagarin, and the prince did not recognize the right of ore samples, and called all the blank is generated­Doi. For the same as it dared to send young, told him to send his wife and children into exile in Mangazeya.

Such a harsh sentence is not more than the machinations of enemies, can not be explained. Fraudulent samples in its Moscow­zilis carts and nothing, all got away, and the correct­but that does not discourage the search. This is on the one hand­us. On the other hand it is not clear how Young could have been mistaken in determining nitrate. After all, his faithful assistant in the affairs of the wife was considered a major specialist among experts is in testing nitrate, and its expert assessments on these issues have often asked the authorities

It happened like that and have to rot Young family in Mangazeya.

But again, they toyed fate. That fate, which once again punished him again threw him a unique chance to get out of trouble. It so happened that when it decides to GPs­grew up on his punishment, he was summoned to the capital. And then brought­Does the order of copper ore, and there was a master hand to try it out. Ore is interested for some reason, Peter I and angrily demanded to immediately identify the quality of its­CTBA.

And then remember the clerks about Fedor.

And until the end of his days he could not forget young as «about­shlogo 710 years tried ore during its imperial ve­amounts. And shatters your Hands of His Majesty tutten (ogarysh when melting), and found that Koenig (wren decoction of metal), and to rejoice exceedingly, and promised Welcome, and wrote in his book, a commemorative our name»

That’s what saved him. The king could not afford to at a time when the country desperately needed a metal knowledgeable person about­hlazhdalsya links. He tells Fedor take on state service. And the same Prince Gagarin, so harsh to the young­mu, already prescribes him for a pretty decent salary of 200 rubles a year to go to the Urals, and almost all its territory tells organize search any ore, but if he finds it, and build a sovereign plants. That’s really here Molo­home experience happened, what it means to favor the Tsar. And the peasants Kungurian allowed in the original job to take, and was allowed to take the necessary gear to search. And barely had time to dictate the young set of tools and supplies for nearly two hundred and fifty rubles, immediately they were delivered to him, only ezzhaj hurry. However, not

liberating, he was assigned «decree to melt all­Kie ore and IP Kungurian County to the decree does not leave». Back to him and Mazuevsky plant breeder back on the horse. He immediately returning­is in Kungur. Neoborvan­ties with the local ore­znattsami allowed otys­Cach copper deposits to them in abundance to supply them quickly erected IU­deplavilny plant. Went with a metal on the sovereign’s needs. And put the young plant not far from him returned Mazuevskogo ironworks.

The work was in full swing, and metal products were profits grew, and seemed to life Fedor finally came in the norm­mal direction.

But such was not the nature of our adventurer to the ACT­Coyne live. Received free labor, Young CPA­Dhu remembered the old dreams expand Mazuevsky plant. Not putting in a hurry notify authorities prederzha­ing, it quickly attaches to the factory shop and organizes re­Affairs of iron in to the current hammer. The state began to receive additional sheet and prutovoe iron.

Enemies, of course, not asleep. They realized that even though th­sudarstvu from the activities of a young one good, but, of course, and he pribytok. And it was a bone in the throat. Found «good man»Whispered who need Kungur. Those not slowed­Lily send denunciation Siberian Department. From there, Immediate­but rushed important official steward Peter Konoplin. Not worth the labor to install: Yes, built «Molotova granary» this restless cocky rascal, and without any offi­cial order. That Moscow bureaucrats re­could not bear. Theodore Young was ordered to take Stra­Ms. He spent more than a year in prison shackles Kungurian and then again sent into exile in a deathtrap place in birch.

What, do you think it has calmed down on the violent nature?

No, not like that it was a man.

The need for knowledgeable people throughout Russia then was great. And after a while, when passion subsided­whether, Young attracted a master goldsmith in papers­you Tobolsk. And in 1718 he was working for the factory master Uktusskom Copper smelting.

In 1720, Peter I in some way know about new zloklyu­cheniyah his old acquaintance, and demands that it immedi-­ately sent to St. Petersburg, it is seen again was rushed well­wives. Prior to that, Young was able to ensure that his business engaged in VN Tatischev, saying, falsely accused and ask faiths­pull the plant. Tatischev, although the evidence is not preserved­friendly attitude to his breeder decided to satisfy his troubles. Yes only the Tatishcheva Demidov­cal machinations pushed from the Ural Affairs. And bring the plant Young Berg-board decided to do only after 1722

Mazuevsky plant was in operation almost all the XVIII century. And the same­lezo altered his clandestinely delivered Moloto­tion production and done it equipment for Drew­GIH Ural factories.

Fedor himself lived to a ripe old age. For­water it got later in the management of his grandson Michael Yaryshkinu.

A memory of the breeder lived for a long time. On the plans in 1773 put them on the river for an iron Mazuevke­waters named «old factory Theodore Young».

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