peoples speaking Finno-Ugric (Finno-Ugric) lang. Finno-Ugric lang. constitute one of the two branches (along with Samoyed) ur. lang. family. Linguistic principle Frank-U.N. are divided into groups: Finnic (Finns, Estonians, Izhorians, Vepsians, Livs, Vod), perm. (Komi Zyrians, Permian Komis, Udmurtia), Ugric (Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians), Mordovia (Mordvinians-Moksha, Mordvinians-Erzya), Mari (Mari) and Sami (Lapps). F.-U.N. settled on the ter. Northwestern. Europe from Scandinavia to the U., Volga-Kama region, the Lower and Mid. Tobol region. Num. Russia in approx. 4.4 million people. (1983).
In anthropological terms, the majority of AF-U.N. belongs to Europe. race, with the exception of Ob-Ugric peoples (Khanty and Mansi), to-rye relate to ur. anthropological type; ancient Mongoloid and Caucasoid mix of features observed in Saami.
Grouping F.-U.N. stands for lang. principle, they share a common origin. It is assumed that in ancient times there was a community of people who speak Finno-Ugric prayaz. The origin of AF-U.N. complicated by a number of issues at the Inst. there is no consensus. According to Naib. common point of view, prafinno-Ugric lang. separated from prasamodiyskogo at the turn of VI-V millennium BC. The ancestors of the present-day. F.-U.N. maintained relative unity until the end of III millennium BC. (Finno-Ugric era), occupied ter. D & Rec. Urals may have lived and at certain neighboring district tries. In the era of the Finno-Ugric contact is made with the Indo-Iranians, to-rye reflected in the language and mythology of Frank-U.N. At the end of the beginning III. II millennium BC. there was a division of the Finno-Ugric and perms. branches. In the process of resettlement in the III and II millennium BC. Finno-permtsev in the west. towards a gradual separation of independent groups of languages (Finnic, Mordovia, Mari, perm.). The Sami are the result of the transition of the autochthonous us. Far Northern Europe to one of the Finno-Ugric lang. Probably the Finno-Ugric lang. previously said tribes Mary Moore, have fallen by the end of the I millennium AD. on vost.slavyanskie lang. Ugric group lang. collapsed to Ser. I millennium. .; BC Baltic-Finnish to beg. BC .; perm. to the VIII. BC During the development of a separate Department. groups FA-U.N. played a large part of their contacts with Iranian, Baltic, Germanic, Slavic (Eastern Slavic peoples), the Turkic peoples.
Lit .: Languages of the Peoples of the USSR. M., 1966, Vol.3. Finno-Ugric and Samoyed languages: Fundamentals of the Finno-Ugric linguistics. M., 1974-1976. MY. 1-3; Hajdu P. Uralic languages and peoples. M., 1985.
Author: Martynov EP