I did not expect even that in Russia the production of braids began 270 years ago

 Home to such agricultural implements for mowing grass and breads became the Middle Urals, more precisely, the now defunct Byngovsky Plant, which was located in the 7 miles from Nevyansk.

   In the chronicle he came in 1718, when he first earned his Molotov factories and smithy ten horns. This ironworks was built at the behest of the founder of the famous metallurgical Nikita Demidov dynasty Antufevicha. Here produced copper utensils, iron roof and other gear. And in 1731, after the completion of the first stagnant factory in Russia started doing braids that were of high quality. Their byngovskie Masters of iron produced at least 15,000 units per year.

   In the twenties of the XVIII century on the orders of Peter the Great in Russian production braid tried to establish by the Germans, and Swedes. Foreign experts have worked for a long time. And after years of setbacks yet created a product “unusual style”. It looked beautiful, but it was impossible to mow. Heavy blade did not cut and crushed grass.

   “Shotguns do not know how to braid and?” heard about this, Akinfiy Demidov became very angry and decided to set up production at its plant. And quickly established. Current do not differ from those “Demidov”. If you look carefully, you will notice that Spit only at first glance is unsophisticated form. But the plane has the braids bend, which is perfectly correlated with the movements of the mower. In a word, impeccable sample in terms of industrial design. Rationalism brought to perfection. With long pores preserved method Changes braids hitting the, naklepyvanie. It was found that the mechanical shocks are not simply leveled blade but reinforce it, thus causing the metal complex physico-chemical reaction.

   In 1742, the Ural factories Akinfiy Demidov visited academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences IG Gmelin. His visit began with Nevyansk. In both memories of visiting the local plant, he notes that “along with a band of iron dressing here was supplied production braid” Quite naturally, zavodovladelets expanding production of tradable goods. This assures the following fact. After leaving the bank of the river Neiva, academician Gmelin arrives in Nizhny Tagil, then met with Laisk plant, which is 20 versts to the north. According to Professor B. Kafengauz, “four years before the arrival of Gmelin (ie about 1738) was transferred here with Byngovskogo plant production braid”. But studies in recent years, in particular, Doctor of Historical Sciences A. Cherkasova, suggests that a new production plant Laisk appeared later. Because in 1738 the building for it had not yet been built. Only in May 1739, keeping strict control of its construction, the clerk sends Akinfiy Demidov Grigori Sidorov drawing inert factories together with their explanations, where there are these words: “And in two thereof factory floor. One in six Arshin from the ground, and the other five Arshin”.

   The first samples of the braid of a new factory could be made in mid-1740. June 10 Akinfiy Demidov, in his letter to Gregory Sidorov gives instruction not to spit harder German, a specimen of which he sent to Lai. Three months later, he received from the factory, five braids, but only one of them fit the bill: “One way to ferment a little, another spoiled hand hammer, and a third obushek spoiled”. Noting these errors, in a letter zavodovladelets gives detailed guidance on how to improve the quality of the braid. This fact suggests that in the new facility did not work byngovskie wizard, and local, in which not all right at it.

   A year later, the braid dressing was placed on the already solid foundation. In November 1741, in a letter to the clerk Laisk plant Demidov expresses its satisfaction with braids factories and notes that they “matter and styles are quite good”.

   Start of production of the braid at the Nizhniy Tagil plant primarily associated with the name tagilchanina, self-taught mechanic Yegor G. Kuznetsov-Rzepin. History has preserved the true story about the stay Tagil mechanics in Tula, where he was sent to study ways of working there the masters. And there by chance he had izladit gun, then Tula General Yarkov Amazed skill tagilchanina, said: “You are not sent to study, and confound our masters”.

   Yegor G. participated in the creation of water acting at the Nizhniy Tagil plant machinery and equipment, designed the mill for rolling of long tetrahedral iron original technical novelty. In the history of Nizhny Tagil “first master locksmith and blacksmith” EG Kuznetsov is better known for its other business. In 1775 he completed work on the original grandfather clock that shows the time of day properly, moon phase, sunrise and sunset times, year, month, day and more. Curious tagilchan surprised miniature bloomery factory, which is just like the process of getting acquainted with Kritsa of pure iron.

   Soon craftsman surprised his countrymen another outlandish invention droshky music, for the manufacture of which he spent 16 years. Originality droshkies that during movement sounded organ music: twenty two tunes. Attracted the attention of verstomer. It can be considered “great-grandfather” automobile speedometer.

   Kuznetsov family, which had its own blacksmith, gave preference to private employment was doing braids. From this we can conclude that inert matter took start in Nizhny Tagil somewhere in the second half of 1804. Long time Kuznetsovsk spit valued very highly, but gradually lost its former glory. Kuznetsov held the palm only as long as the plant does not have established the mass production of the braid. This confirms “Report Nizhny Tagil office PN Demidov” on May 30, 1830: “Spit same Rzepin (Kuznetsova. MR) has produced a very different kind and form, first adopted by nehozhdeniyu here braid and Batashevs Vienna, and the amount of the add curry the least, so that the one-year time not more than 50 pieces. Now the same as the improvement in the decoration and kindness Nizhny Tagil braid (braid factory. MR), we can report that spit Rzepin against the former fell in price and in glory, acquired during pervouchki vydelyvaniya braid at the Nizhniy Tagil tap production without To give a taste of buyers limit, the office will try dressing more braid lead to improvement, convinced that, with regard to the quality of this production deserve installer Ivan Makarov overall reputation and hope that over time, the supply of Siberia braids will depend on some Nizhny Tagil plants”.

   Installer stagnant production in Nizhny Tagil factory IF Makarov was a talented engineer and metallurgist. In 1807 he was sent on a business trip to Vienna to study the technology of manufacturing of steel braid. The fact is that not only Demidov factories, but also the entire industry of Russia in the beginning of XIX century poorly supplied machines and implements labor agricultural economy. Not only cars, but also sickles and scythes, and plow in a variety of the country were imported from abroad. Spit mainly imported Austrian companies, which at the time were considered the best in the world. Their goods they advertised as follows: “Do not mow, and shave”. “During mowing rather tired legs than arms”.

   We must assume that in 1807 in Nizhny Tagil, began production of the braid, and it reached its peak by 1830.

   In 1836, the IF Makarov went to District Zlatoust plant, which united Artinsky, Zlatoust, Kusa and Satkinsky plants. This trip was caused by the fact that it entered the dressing braid cast crucible steel in his original method proposed by them a year ago. Mass production of advanced selhozinstrumenta was organized at the factory efforts Artinskaya chief Zlatoust mining district, an outstanding metallurgist Pavel Petrovich Anosov. In a letter dated September 26, 1836 governor of affairs Moscow Agricultural Society, he notes that “sales on the spot and praise their sharpness quite convince me that Russia will have their hair better than the imported. Spit met with disabilities for whom aversion I had to once again live on Artinskaya factory, and now experienced production over, and started this, non-stop action of inert factory”. PP Anosov a new organized and hardening of the braid, which instead of the traditional oil began to apply “condensed air”, Which deserves to be told otherwise. Curiosity and agile mind allowed engineer inventor to make an unexpected discovery where others saw only exotics. Travellers who have visited Syria home of the famous Damascus or Damascus steel, in his memoirs, paying special attention to, in their view, the mystical way of quenching damask blade at arms factory. With her, lying between two mountains in the vicinity of Damascus, were built two stone walls, the height of which about 15 feet (about 4.5 meters), and the length is close to 33 feet. Between themselves, they form an angle where a hole to four feet wide and five feet tall, it is equipped with a massive door. During a strong wind blades are heated red hot, put in the hole and open the door. Mountain wind force, able to overturn the rider on the horse, rapidly cooled blades.

   Second thoughts led to Anosov interesting conclusion: “These data have served me a reason to conclude, regardless whether the extraordinary sharpness Asian sabers over the method of quenching drink, rather than on the material they are prepared whose blades. To confirm this hypothesis, I decided to do a test on a small scale on a variety of steel things zakalivaya discharge the same condensed air cylindrical bellows, since the action of the art of condensed air should be identical with the action of strong winds”.

   As the Russian saying goes, experience is the best teacher. The subject of the first sample was a table knife, which is heating up red, the experimenter framed to the hole from which blew a mighty stream “condensed air”. Experience has shown that the metal loses its elasticity. But despite the proverb: “Of evil can not do good”, Turned out quite the contrary, it has been proved that the next stage of the experiment. Knife blade, tempered by the new method, after sharpening turned unusually sharp.

   Experiments with knives lead engineer Pavel Anosov to the idea of ​​the organization of the new quenching braid technologies- cold. Here is what he wrote about the results of two years of experimentation work: “When cutting hardened by the novel process braids grass at the same time with braids, hardened in the usual manner, it became clear that beaten off and properly warn by Spit, hardened in the air, cut the grass easier and cleaner, and that the mower is moving forward, feeling less tired, and goes away without repeater mowing workmen involved in the experiments here willingly bought all the braids that have been hardened by the novel process, although the price is was assigned a higher than on the rest of the spit”.

   On the I World’s Fair, which was held in 1851 in London and was named “World Congress of products and manufacturers”, Steel braid Artinskaya ironworks Zlatoust District received a silver medal. This weighty award summed up forty years of tireless and painstaking work to improve this kind of tools.

   Of the 17 thousand exhibits presented at the exhibition, the British press has allocated and another product Anosov famous Damascus steel blades. Newspaper “Morning Post” enthusiastically noted that “the remarkable success of this sector of Russian industry, no doubt, can be attributed to the high quality steel consumed”. These successes Ural production in London made a significant contribution zhelezodelateli Nizhny Tagil plant. After Anosov widely used known Tagil iron branded “Old Sable”Which was different, figuratively speaking, his kindness and gentleness. If at the beginning of the development of production braid them were made of mild steel, then later began to use more solid and tough metal welded Damascus steel by the process.

   Extant pleasant memories famous Zlatoust masters Nikolai Shvetsov, who accompanied the exhibits of its plant to the London exhibition. And that’s where the British experts have decided to test the strength of Zlatoust Damascus steel. They ruthlessly cut down blade Amos English. On the blade, manufactured by British craftsmen, appeared significant notch. A Urals acquired only specks. That was such a strong steel Stone Belt.

   Plant in Artyah where dressing braid began in 1808, and still operates. Now the name of his “Artinsky Mechanical Plant”. Its products are, at first glance, uncomplicated: scythes, sickles, various types of needles And nowadays steel braid there, he improved. Thirty years ago, the factory moved to the rolling of the braid, which improved their quality. It is also noteworthy that the innovation Artinskaya mechanical engineers began to apply first in the world. In the manufacture of braids previous method, which was used until now, harvesting eight times been fiery processing. Steel teir carbon, reducing its strength. Technological innovation has allowed to move only on a one-time heating. And only the high frequency currents that do not have a detrimental effect on the chemical composition of the metal.

   Field trials of a new spit convincingly proved that the factory workers on the right track. The quality of this type of agricultural implements is relative. Therefore, the exam held just five brands braid. This two Artinskaya: previous forged and the current mill. Near-testers got mowers with foreign products issued in Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia. A few words about how to actually spit “exams”. Nature has endowed the neighborhood of the village Artie fine mowing floodplains. Their beauty, reminiscent of a colorful carpet, at one time I admired during shooting television reports about the haymaker on the farm fields “Artinsky”. It was they who began to test sites steel braid. Typically this entertaining contest has long known: who will pass. In this important, who rarely remember about Whetstone, ie less will stop due to the fact that zvonkoostraya ceases to whip the grass. The longer the swath between failures (there is a term in the haymakers. MR), the closer the victory. In this race there haymaking and mysterious thing: none of the participants did not know what he is experiencing a braid manufacturer.

   According to the results of the hard work of the two teams has been recognized as the most resistant Ural new samples Artinskaya rolling spit (remember the ad: “Do not mow, and shave”). Artinskaya braid manufactured before, came in third place behind to beat the Hungarian and Yugoslavian products.

   Five years after this memorable event, in 1975, braids made on Artinskaya mechanical plant, were recognized as the best in the world. This triumph they achieved at the international competitions in Turkey.

   Unfortunately, the crisis of the 90s of the last century and touched Artinskian Mechanical Engineers: sharply reduced sales of the products, there was a decline in production but factory workers found an opportunity to enter into a confident track. In mid-1997, has resumed production of the famous braid because it began to receive orders from previous customers of the Russian provinces and foreign countries. Now the volume of their production is nine times less than in the best years, but it’s still a step forward. However, the markets “over the hill” showed up in abundance competitive products. This spit of Austria and China. But as the Ural saying bazaar price says. Therefore, such a natural position with sales may artintsev not very worried. After Urals spit convincingly proved that they are stronger than the Austrian lighter than Chinese. And while the world they have no equal.

Marlies Rafiki.

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