"from prostnyh people
electe and Equip God glory and ratoborstvom and
volnostiyu Ataman Ermak Kalashnikov son
Povolskogo and unanimously and predobroyu
retinue hrabrovavsheyu, zabysha light of this whole
honor and glory and sweetness of the flesh and death and
Of synodic Cossacks in Yesipovsky
Hike Ermak in
Siberia — one of the most interesting pages of history
Russia. People have created a lot of songs, legends and
tales, in which the name Ermak placed next to the
Ilya Muromets, Dobrynia Nikitich, Stepan
Razin. Many rivers, tracts, caves and settlements in the
Urals and Siberia are named after the legendary Chief.
Ermak’s campaign history
began with a serious interest in the middle of XVIII
century. Known works "father Siberian
History" GF Miller. Not abated this interest and
this day. Written hundreds of scientific papers,
on various topics related to campaign
Yermak in Siberia, studied all the available
written evidence of the campaign and disputes and
debate among scientists erupted again and
again. This is due to the fact that the written
sources — is primarily Siberian chronicles
(Esipov, Remezovskaya, Stroganov and
etc.) — very sparingly, contradictory and confusing
illuminate the history of the campaign. Even the most significant
— Start a campaign (spring or fall 1579, 1580, 1581
or 1582 years?), who took the initiative
campaign (Stroganov or most Ermaku?), which
was the size and composition squads as lay
its path, whether wintering in the Urals — even it up
not yet been established for certain. Very little
information about the Ermak. Who he was: Don Cossack
or comes from the Kama Basil T. Alenin?
Great expectations scientists
confer on archaeological study places
associated with the campaign Ermak, referred to in
chronicles, folk songs and legends.
Archaeological excavations may give an answer to
many controversial issues.
excavations were carried out in the late XIX — early XX
centuries on the site of the capital of the Siberian Khanate —
Isker and Ermakov fort on the river Tagil, where
Ermak supposedly stood for several weeks
after a difficult crossing of the Ural Mountains.
Then, after a long hiatus in 1946,
historians have again started to search for the facts. Bader
continued excavations Ermakova settlement. Later
archaeologists began to frequent Isker in
estimated wintering guards on the river
Kokui. Were found some new materials and
evidence relating to the time of the campaign
Ermak, but not all and not exhaustive, and disputes
among scientists about the campaign Ermak not subsided and did not even
In 1977, at the Ural
Archaeological meeting, it was decided
conduct a survey of the route of Ermak.
Expedition "In the wake of the Yermak" made
A group led by
employee Ural archaeological
Expedition YB Serikova examined riverbanks
Silverfish, coca Aktaya, cranes, Baranci. Were
passed hundreds of kilometers, found dozens
archaeological sites, including the
short-term parking, abandoned Russian
units, it was proved that the so-called
Kokui-town, opened in 1926 and studied
Taghilsky archaeologist AI Rossadovich in 1963,
The years 1967-1969, is not a wintering area squads
Ermak. This is evidenced by the finds themselves, and
moreover, the appearance of the settlement: this place
not surrounded by ramparts and ditches, and pits and ditches with
mounds thrown out when one of them lands that
no way resembles a fortress. Finds
suggests that there probably
smelted metal to a much later time.
In May 1981, a group of
office workers and students of archeology
historical faculty of the Ural
University continued its examination of the Ural
part of the route Ermak. It was planned to
the shortest possible time to walk and catamarans
way from the mouth of the river to Silverfish Ermakova
settlement on the river Tagil, examining the way the shore
Silverfish, coca Aktaya, Baranci — places where
could stay which followed&# 8217; in Siberia
Russian troops, including Ermak.
In addition, it was necessary to find out: how many days
could pass this way Ermak?
Act, which flows into the Baranci,
as well as its other tributary — Crane referred to in
chronicles, very close to the upper reaches of the river Kokui.
Therefore Aktai could be the way by which
squad Ermak Baranci got on, and then
"popdosha down and nyshed at Tura River, and that baa
Failed to examine the left
Beach Aktaya. Yes, this river in the spring time
could have rafted on light Strugi. But
only in the spring. In autumn, the water is very low, and if
Ermak was autumn, only the beach, but
what — on the right or the left? Pits,
laid down on the left bank, other than products
Stone Age yielded nothing.
On Baranci, near
Baranchinsky village, we found a settlement
Early Iron Age, and next to it a deep
oval-shaped cavity, the rest seems to
dugout. Strongly swollen and good sodded
edge and bottom depressions said that dugout
collapsed a long time, but when? In the first pits
away from the cavity were found fragments of Russian
seroloschenoy ceramics, which was particularly
common in XVI- XVII centuries. Who was the occupant
this dugout, when and why it was abandoned?
Answer even some of these questions
it will be possible after the excavation. And while you can
assume or fantasize. Of course, not
possible that the dugout could be built
someone from the Russian pioneers —
contemporaries Ermak and his companions.
ended in a clearing near the settlement Ermakova.
Fire was burning, the river silently darkened silhouette
Bear-stone, barely audibly roared river, wind
rhythmically swaying pine
Perhaps it is on this
glade four years ago, too, bonfires
ERMAKOVKA vigilantes, boiled in cauldrons
uncomplicated dinner? Maybe somewhere there was
Ermak tent in which chieftain with the nearest
his friends Ivan Ring, Matthew
Mescheryakov Nikita Pan, Bogdan Bryazgoy
held a council of war? On the shore were newcomers
Struga, the squad put in order and weapons
monuments associated with the campaign Yermak in Siberia
reliably known, only one — the capital
Siberian Khanate, the main rate Kuchum: Isker
on the Irtysh River, which has repeatedly made
excavations. Today, from the settlement was a tiny
piece of fortifications — Irtysh water "ate"
high steep bank.
In September 1981
Expedition "In the wake of the Yermak",
organized by Ural State University,
Nizhny Tagil Pedagogical Institute and
Taghilsky museum, continued
search. This time in a new area, where, in addition
Isker, was not known to archaeologists places
relating to the campaign Ermak.
Carefully examined all
Siberian line chronicles, which refers to the
activities squads for Tobol and Irtysh. Malo,
sparingly vague But, unfortunately, it
our only support in the search, the only
The first item on the exploration
works was elected so-called Karachinov Island
or Karachinov town, which in the Siberian
chronicles spoken of as the residence of one of the
nearest kuchumovskih vassals. The town was taken
Yermak August 1, 1581 (for Remezovskoy
That same report it
town chronicles? In Pogodinskaya list
Yesipovsky chronicles say, that the Cossacks
"doidosha to Karachinov Ulus sotvorishasya Well
Karachi with name-calling, and many ulus here vzyasha",
"This is Karachi Dumnaya baa king Kuchyuma and love
he was made king and pansyri kolchyugi and every
In the annals of these Remezovskoy
information supplemented by interesting details.
It is reported that after taking Karachinov
town Ermak made rapid
Raid up Tavda — the left tributary of the Tobol — to
mouth of the river Pelym where there was Pelymsky
principality, is part of the huge mottled
Picking up where the force, and where
the consent of a number of towns Mansi, if Ermak
would be going back to Russia — by Stone, but
shaytanschik (shaman), captured by the Cossacks in
Chandyrskom town Ermaku predicted that he
return to Karachinov lake winter, and then
Kuchum win and take his kingdom.
Indeed Ermak, as we know, did not return to
Russia, and turned back and came to "cabin
Karachi with many supplies dried". "And
arrived on November 8 Karachinov day and that sedosha 2
week". (Another list Remezovskoy chronicles
refers to the 40 days stay in Karachi
island Ermak.) On the wintering at Karachi
island reported only in this record.
Others Siberian chronicles do not contain
predictions chandyrskogo shaytanschika. Was
wintering Ermakova Cossacks on the island or not?
Siberian chronicles created in the XVII century, many
decades after described therein
Despite their overall basis,
In various embodiments, the Siberian chronicles
there are many significant differences. Apparently,
chronicles the authors relied on some other
sources unknown to us. Chandyrsky shaytanschik
depicted in the annals as Remezovskoy
powerful wizard and a soothsayer, and
his predictions Yermak, as we know,
come true, except for the winter Ermak Karachi
island. Thereby undermining the author chronicles
shaytanschika authority, created by himself.
But such confusion and
contradiction in this and in other chronicles a lot.
Nevertheless, after the description of the campaign Tavdinsky
squads author chronicles quite definitely
says "cabin Karachi"Where the Cossacks
brought numerous "supplies dried",
which again points to the preparation for the winter on
And the last. By Remezovskoy
chronicles Ermak and his entourage returned to
Karachinskiy island on 8 November. And at this time in
Siberia comes the real winter, and on a hike
on Strugi to Isker can not be, of course, no question.
In the same chronicle the date of taking Isker — 26
October (probably already next year).
So, the only
Siberian chronicles — Remezovskaya — for all its
confusion, persistent and definitely speaks of
wintering on the island of Karachi. Needless to say,
find this island and to prove the existence of
It wintering Ermak would be very, very
In the study of the Lower Card
Tobol became clear that far from his mouth is
Karachinov village. Chronicle Karachinov town
is 16 miles from the mouth of the Tobol in
Karachi island. Town is long gone, and
arose on the lake village got its
On a sunny September day
Our group arrived in Karachinov. People would willingly
agreed to help us in search of the town.
-Karachinsky Island? Yes, that’s
he is on the doorstep. Only you better by boat
cross. Do not walk on dry land, there springs —
-Ermak? Yes, there are on the island
Ermakova pit. Here Ermak with Kuchum battle waged.
No, did not find anything
Quickly find your boat, and we
crossed over to the island. At the edge of the shore was
road encircling the entire island. The island was
large with high, up to four meters, sloping
shores. The first discovery was made unexpectedly
quickly. We have collected a large amount of debris
Russian pottery, ceramics, small
blocks, two iron arrowheads and
chip knife. In one of the boreholes at depths of 70
centimeters on a layer of brick mass and coal was
Found Russian pottery ceramics. Russian
belonging mostly to the findings
Karachi island is not in doubt.
Local old-timers claimed that the island
No one has ever lived, and were only meadows yes
arable land. Traces of this winter Ermak or something else?
The answer can only be given excavations on the site
Detection of the settlement. We should not forget that
on the same island was one of the centers of the Siberian
Khanate — Karachinov town.
Very vague and unclear
circumstances of the death of Yermak and the Cossacks,
participated in the last campaign by Vahan.
It is known that Ermak, received the news of the false
that Kuchum roams in the upper and Vagaya
captured caravan Bukharan merchants
heading to the lower reaches of the Irtysh and rich
item, went with a group of 50 people up
Irtysh "to the river Vagaya, Bukhara without gaining
out from this place back to Perekopa and Ust Vaga
and peroxide rozstavisha mill" (Remezovskaya
In the August rainy
Night 1584 camp was surrounded by Ermak and suddenly
attacked by a variety of kuchumovskih warriors. Only
one of the Cossacks escaped and reached Isker,
informing remaining there squad terrible news.
Ermak, being wounded, tried to swim to the
plows, but heavy armor utyanuli it to the bottom
Irtysh. That’s all that we know about the latest
battle chieftain and his companions Cossacks.
Unbeaten leader, apparently, was first
caught off guard by the superior forces of the enemy
and suffered his first and last defeat.
chronicles concise and do not contain the exact
a description of where the last camp Ermak. Specified
only Vagaya mouth and some Perekopa in Agitskoy
onions, perpetrated by Yermak, to shorten the path from
Irtysh in Vagai. It is unlikely that the Cossacks, hurrying
Kuchum catch in the upper Vagaya, started to
digging this perekoli.
Our search Perekopa were
fruitless. In the mouth Vagaya no such
turned out. We have carefully studied the shore of the island
at the mouth of Vagaya, Vagaya shore up a few
kilometers, questioned residents of the surrounding
villages. Searches vagayskogo camp on the Irtysh
also had no success. It is possible that this place
has disappeared in the waters of the Irtysh.
Near the mouth of Vagaya
there are two Tatar villages — Begishevo and
Baisheva. They were the last points of our
In the annals of Remezovskoy
stating that the body had been taken Ermak
Tatars near Epanchina ulus and after the identification of
Tatars "narekosha his god and buried them in his
their law on Baishevskom cemetery near
Academician GF Miller,
created on the basis of the Siberian chronicles and
documentary evidence of Siberia monumental
labor "History of Siberia", Wrote that the Yermak
buried in the ancient Tatar Baishevskom
cemetery where they buried her know, and above
the grave was poured huge mound. In
Remezovskoy chronicles there is evidence that
Tatars considered if "from the body and dress
Ermakova working of miracles and healing in war and in
fisheries luck". In connection with these beliefs
earth from the grave of Ermak long revered
as sacred, from a distance behind her came the Tatars,
to take her to the node, hoping for miracles.
Armor and a sword with a belt Ermak considered
main omnipotent relics. But religious
Muslim elite and know "as that
the law of their desecrated and ceases working of miracles,
zapretisha everything from small to large to remember the name
Yermakovo zadlitsya to honor and glory, and his tomb
not be revealed"That is forbidden to read
Yermak and his grave things as sacred, and to
his name was consigned to oblivion "death
polozhisha covenant that about him Ruscam not veschati"
The fact that the location of
grave Ermak finally forgotten in our time,
according to a survey of local residents. Other same
information, except for the chronicles and legends,
collected in the XVII-XVIII centuries, is not available.
No traces of the Kurgan
embankment at both cemeteries was observed. On
Begishevskom cemetery of vague
wooded valleys we met several
relatively fresh pits left behind,
apparently modern treasure hunt. In
one of the pits we noticed part of a brick
masonry. Beneath it was a gaping dark crevice. Apparently, pit,
excavated by someone before us, touched the edge of the brick
crypt, built in the Middle Ages. Custom
build houses gravestones or grave,
crypts known many nomadic peoples
So, the expedition "By
footsteps Ermak" completed its regular season.
Maybe he was not as successful as we would
wanted, but still the results are encouraging.
Upcoming excavations on the island of Karachi
should answer many questions, including
the possibility of wintering Ermak this
island. Looking for a place associated with the campaign Ermak
their archaeological survey can give
significant additions and amendments to the chronicles
versions of the campaign and to resolve many disputes that
conducted by researchers Ermak’s campaign here
for three centuries.
Nikolai Varankine Sergei Parkhimovich.
"Ural Ranger" №10 / 1982 s.57-59.