The objective of reducing the negative impact of reducing the oil and gas industry on the environment is currently being discussed as an essential element of security of energy policy at all levels of government, including at the level of the Committee on the Environment of the State Duma and the Russian Security Council. It is named among the priorities of Natural Resources and Environment in the Russian doctrine. However, the current state of the environmental problems of development of hydrocarbon deposits demonstrates the need for improvement of the economic mechanism of management of natural resources, tightening the control of waste management system and the quality of the environment. The main challenges in achieving effective improvement of the environmental situation are inadequate requirements of the legal framework for environmental safety in the oil and gas industry and the low fee Environment damage caused by economic activity.
This situation required the formation of his own (district) of the legal framework for the protection of the environment, taking into account the functioning of the energy sector and environmental and geographical features of the region.
In 2005, the Duma passed a law KhMAO KhMAO “On the complex target program of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Ugra” Improvement of the environmental situation in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Ugra 2005-20010 years. ”
Long-term goals of the Program are to provide favorable environmental conditions in the territory of the autonomous region, avoiding negative effects on the environment, rehabilitation and prevention of loss of typical and unique landscapes and ecosystems, the introduction of clean and low-waste technologies. The main ongoing activities under the program include:
– design and construction of inter-municipal facilities for disposal of production in order to prevent harmful effects on the environment;
– Improvement and rehabilitation of land reclamation one-sixth of the total volume of contaminated land and cluttered, fire safety Okrug population and preservation of forests, preservation of unique natural complexes and rare flora and fauna of the autonomous region;
– introduction of clean and low-waste technologies, reset exception of chlorinated compounds in water bodies from four sewage treatment plants Autonomous Region, the annual clearance of hazardous medical waste from health care facilities of the Autonomous Okrug and the reduction of pollution of the main streams of the Autonomous Okrug;
– conducting regional environmental monitoring, creation of a unified system of observation and environmental monitoring data banks within the limits and outside the boundaries of about 250 licensed sites, receiving information about the emissions, discharges of pollutants, the location of the fires, and other information about the negative impacts on the environment, the adoption of timely measures for the prevention and elimination of emergency situations of natural and man-made disasters.
– eco-educational activities within the task of informing the public about the state of the environment, increase the level of environmental culture and the reduction of environmental risk factors of the population of the Autonomous Okrug.
To minimize the negative impact of industry on the unique natural complexes in 1998, the Resolution of the Government of the Governor of Khanty-Mansiysk «On special order mineral exploitation and natural systems of the Ob field”, which, given the identity Priobskoe field on oil and gas to the major fields in Russia, taking account of its uniqueness, location obslovlennuyu mostly deposit area in riparian zones p. Ob and its tributaries, with the status of the highest fish category, was established special procedures for subsoil use Priobskoe field with mandatory compliance with the conditions. This procedure provides with additional exploration and development of the field of man-made complex of minimal impact on the environment, the rational and full use of the production and proven reserves of minerals.
Given the need to address the problem of environmental regulation of anthropogenic load, guaranteeing the profitability of environmental protection measures, established regional standards content of priority pollutants of the environment. Order of 10 November 2004 year number 441-n, on the basis of the Federal Law “On Environmental Protection”, approved by the regional norm “legal limit on oil and petroleum products in the bottom sediments of surface water bodies in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra “, which is set in order to preserve biodiversity and prevent negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems, control and regulation of the level of contamination of bottom sediments of water bodies by petroleum hydrocarbons; serves as a basis (in accordance with federal law) for the development and establishment of standards for maximum permissible impact on surface water bodies. Regional specification of intended regulatory authorities and business entities for use in assessing the state of the environment, the initial state of benthic ecosystems, surface water bodies in the works to assess the impact on the components of the environment, in the planning, design and execution of work, either directly or indirectly affect the condition of benthic ecosystems.
Government Resolution of 10 December 2004 year number 466-n, on the basis of the Federal Law “On Environmental Protection”, approved by the regional norm “Permissible residual oil and petroleum products in the soil after reclamation and other restoration works on the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra “, which is set in order to preserve biodiversity and prevent negative impacts on soil ecosystems, control and regulation of the level of contamination of soil and land petroleum hydrocarbons. Regional standard is intended for use by supervising bodies and economic entities in the assessment of soil and land after land reclamation and other recovery operations.
One of the most important areas of the territorial protection of the environment in the autonomous region is the preservation and development of a network of protected areas. Partial or total removal of their economic use of natural systems is carried out in order to maintain the landscape and ecological balance, biodiversity, the gene pool of living organisms, research of the functioning and dynamics of natural landscapes and their components. Given that the territory of the autonomous region included in the Euro-Asian Centre for Ecological stabilization biosphere values, the preservation of its ecosystems is of utmost importance for the Northern Hemisphere.
Isolation of protected areas in the district began in 1926, when it was formed first Kondinskoye-Sosvinsky reserve in order to maintain the population of the North Asian beavers. To date, the district has 26 protected areas (PAs) for various categories including:
– state natural reserves (“Yugansky”, “small Sos’va”);
– parks (“Numto”, “Siberian ridges”, “Kondinsky lakes”, “Samarovsky Chugas”);
– state nature reserves (“Vaspuholsky”, “Elizarovsky”, “Upper Kondinsky”);
– natural monuments;
The total area of protected areas of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Ugra is 6.3% of the territory of the district, which is almost 1.5 times more than in 1991, however, taking into account the large-scale degradation of the landscape as a result of redundancy unallocated subsoil fund under license areas should be recognized that the area of ”reserve” fund requires an increase in the county. There is a need to establish nature reserves in Nefteyugansk, Nizhnevartovsk, and the October Kondinsky areas prone to high anthropogenic load. Important in view of the planned development of the Polar Urals is to increase the proportion of areas with special protection regime in the west of the autonomous region in Berezovsky district.
Development of oil and gas industry has affected the habitat of indigenous peoples, who number at the beginning of 2005 totaled 30 150 . Since 1992, the “Regulations on the status of tribal lands in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District” enshrines the right of indigenous peoples of the North for the use of tribal lands, where they are a traditional form of life. Under current law, oil companies must coordinate its activities with the owners of tribal lands and to compensate them for losses.
At the present stage of industrial development within the county are among the main areas to minimize the negative environmental consequences are the prevention of spills, improving remediation of contaminated land, protection and restoration of the landscape in the design fields, reducing hydrocarbon pollution of environment components.