Higher secular estate, which had inherited privilege. At the beginning of WD. formed in XVI-XVII century. of Representat. Tsarist adm., serving people in the fatherland governors, governor, hands. military neg., Vol. and components of a SNR. h. D. knights (service people). Along with the Russian., In the DA representatives feodaliziruyuscheysya top of indigenous peoples, as well as exiles foreigners (Lithuanians, Poles, Belarusians, etc..) Poverstannye in knights.
Lv. D. replenished by Representat. others. classes (in DOS. merchants) who received a knighthood for special services (eg. Stroganoff) or entered into kinship with D. In the XVIII century beginning. XIX century. completion of the nobility was due to the number of military, because first officer’s rank entitled personnel D. Main. h. Orenbah officer corps. Cossack troops army were nobles. In comparison with Europe. Russian DU were few. Eg., In the second half. XIX century. it was less than 1% in 1863 we .: 0.4% (27.8 thousand. pers.), 0.6% in 1897 (55.4 per thousand. pers.).
Latifundia DU were the largest in the country. Max. known private owners of land and wealth began to Perm. lips. Count Stroganov (1611772 ten. lands) V.M.Golitsyn (829609 dec. lands), and H.Ya.Lazarev E.H.Abamelek-Lazarev (901842 dec. lands), Butera-kind (then her heirs P. P. and A.P.Shuvalovy) Vsevolozhsky Demidov; in Orenbah. lips. Timasheva, Benardaki, Pashkov.
Most of ur. D. has not brought their own agricultural x-va, and is engaged in commercial business. In 1860, 75 of the 88 mine owners were AD, they owned the vast majority of the cross. Y. 9 estates nobility s-dchikov Perm. lips. was concentrated 92% serfs lips. Possessory right, a monopoly on raw materials, fuel and cheap slave. D. force provided fairly stable high profits and rapid development of Manuf. So, Wed rate of return on iron-z-dah in 1724-1734 amounted to 131%, in 1800-1830 more than 100% in 1840-1850 60-90%. In the mid. XVIII century. most families nobility mine owners no longer lived on W., shifting control of fiefdoms on adm. apparatus. Agricultural D. prevailed in Orenbah. and Ufa Province. From 1877 to 1905 the proportion of DA in the private ownership of land was reduced from 83 to 79%, ie 4%, and in Russia as a whole by 41%. Stability noble tenure W. was linked to the predominance of the mining specialization. The reduction in the noble estates with agricultural x-tion was more intense. Thus, in Orenbah. lips. it was 60%. In 1908-13 in Perm. lips. through the Cross. the bank has sold more than 77 thousand. dec. lots. To sell their lands D. was compelled to DOS. because of debts.
In the context of the further development of capitalist relations h. JW ruined, h. Embarked on the Burj. entrepreneurship. In the mining ind. this process has been linked with a move patrimonial form of ownership equity. In the owners’ env. largest owners (S.A.Stroganov, SS Abamelek-Lazarev, S.E.Lvov, Solodovnikov GG) s-dy remain the sole property of up to 1917 Economic power D. determine its place in the watered. Life U. It prevailed in the local administration. According to the number of vowels from large landowners zemstvo Ufa Province. surpassed many others. agricultural province. Ts Russia. Miners, owning lands in several. y. had their attorneys from each of them. So, the book. S.M.Golitsyn had their representatives in at 6., And graph SG Stroganov 5 y. In 1905-1907 h. D. consolidated in watered. Party and org-tion. Nobles-e-dchiki, enjoyed the patronage of the Prospect Island, entered the protective and conservative parties have been left out or watered. parties. Ch large and Wed landowners, representative. D. the number of intellectuals and civil servants, or were actively supported the Cadet Party. Kind of u. consolidation of forces D.-breeders and the monopoly bourgeoisie was created in 1882 by the Congress of Miners W. Neck rye noble houses had their own emblems. During the first soc. transformations on the W. noble estates were liquidated. Decree of the CEC and the CPC of the destruction of estates and civil ranks (1917) DV as a class was abolished.
Author: Sidorenko NS