Prokhorovskaya (early Sarmatian) CULTURE
archaeological. culture of the Eurasian steppes IV-II centuries. BC, got its name from the mounds of s. Prokhorovka Sharlykskogo district Orenbah. region. unearthed SI Rudenko. M.I.Rostovtsev dated them to the IV-III centuries. BC and linked from the east. neighbors of the Scythians Sarmatians (Sauromates Sarmatian community). In 1927-29 BN Grakov united all the memory. Lower Volga region and South. Urals similar Prokhorovskaya, Prokhorovsky (Sauromates-Sarmatian) stage and dated her IV-II centuries. BC At pres. Bp. There are two hypotheses about the origin PK in its two local variants -Yuzh.-Priur. and the Volga-Don. According to the first, it is completely formed by the end of the IV. BC. e. on regular. local culture savromatskoy South. Urals and alien components brought tribes, advancing from the forest-steppe Zauralye (Itkulsky Gorokhovskiy culture), Kazakhstan and possibly Priaralye (Moshkova MG). At the end of the turn of the IV or IV-III centuries. BC. e. there was a mass migration yuzhnour. nomads in the west to the Lower Volga and minor in the north, south and east to the eastern Lower Volga region. nomads h. savromatskie assimilated local tribes hours. pushed them into the Sea of Azov and the app. Caucasus, where they are subsequently accounted for DOS. sirakskogo nomadic association. Symbiosis yuzhnour. PK with the Lower Volga savromatskoy identified local differences between Prokhorovskaya memory. South. Urals and the Volga-Don region within a single culture. According to the second version (Shilov VP) in the South. Ural region formed PK, the Lower Volga region at the same time and completely on the local DOS. early Sarmatian, and runs parallel to the development of the two lines.
Excavated more than a thousand graves PK They barrows. Max. early and transient IV century. BC located in the South. Ural region, grave III-II centuries. I in the beginning. BC concentrated Ch. arr. in the Volga-Don region. One characteristic of the rite is an annular arrangement of graves around u. burial. There are burial mounds under individual and haphazard layout of the intake burials, most often in the Lower Volga. Among the forms of burial structures most red lining, there are graves with shoulders and catacombs. Regular. h. burials are elongated rectangular pit average width. Graves are usually oriented meridian, and lie buried their heads in the south, sometimes with disabilities. The graves are common organic litter and veils. There are the remains of the funeral stretcher and light chariots, such as the Pazyryk. As the ritual substances and items used pieces of chalk, gypsum, red and yellow ocher, shells, pebbles, sets the so-called molotochkovidnyh items, clay and alabaster censers. Traces of the cult of fire, especially in the South. Ural region is stored in the form of remnants of the fires, ash and pieces of coal. Funeral food usually sheep leg with a shovel. Inventory diverse. Arms on swords, daggers, bronze. three-edged and three-bladed socketed arrowheads and yellow. petiolate. Spears, darts and armature rare. Complete bridle sets are very rare, usually only bits, vorvorki, plaques. At the end of the rich graves III-I centuries. BC. e. Math. phalerae met. circular plaques decorated harness horse. Among the tools -nozhi, whetstones, spindle whorls, bronze. and yellow. needles, very rarely yellow. axes and adzes. Toilet articles presented bone spoons and tops of the ridges, bronzes. mirrors. Among the ornaments met necklaces made of glass or stone beads, bronze, silver and angry. Suspension pronizki, earrings, rarely bracelets, rings and hryvnia. Clothing embroidered with silver and sometimes angry. plaques and are often supplemented with bronze., ivory and yellow. buckles with fixed hook.
In common parlance was used stucco and ceramic pottery. In the South. Priurale very significant percentage were round-bottomed vessels, especially in IV-III centuries. BC Pottery ceramics whole was brought to South. Ural region of Central Asia c. Occasionally met bronzes. boilers of the same type as in savromatskoe time. A few articles in the animal style (Sauromates Sarmatian animal style) (especially III-II centuries. BC. E.) Highly stylized and primitive (eg., Tops of the ridges of bone).
Lit .: Grakov BN GYNAIKOKPATOYMENOI (Remnants of matriarchy the Sarmatians) // WFI, 1947. № 3; KF Smirnov Sauromats. Moscow, 1964; Moshkova MG Monuments of Culture Prokhorov // AIS 1963.D. 1-10; Pshenichnyuk AH Culture of the early nomads of the South Urals. M., 1983; Skripkin AS Asian Sarmatia. Saratov, 1990.
Author: Moshkova MG