(From Italian. And Spanish. Basta basta, enough, enough), strike, one of the DOS. forms of struggle slave. for the improvement of living conditions. Z. is the collective refusal to continue to work on the same terms.
First Z. took place in Italy in the XIV century. In the XVI-XVIII centuries. Received wide. distribution in Europe. gos Islands. In Russia, the first recorded at the Z. of certain enterprises in the XVIII-XIX centuries., But Ser. XIX century. were extremely rare. V.Dal in the dictionary, giving the definition of Z. close to the present one, specify that it is a foreign Z. slave.
W. facts termination slave. and pripisnymi cross. s labor-dah order to achieve their demands Izv. ever since the Pugachevshchina. In 1822 there was a large Z. slave. Kyshtym, in 1841 uglezhogov Revdinskogo h-huh. In the post-reform period Naib. large Z. performances were a slave. s on-dah Nizhni Tagil District (1874), on the z-dah Stroganoff (Pavlovsky, Dobryansky, Ocher (1874-1875) and in 1879 by a government Motovilikhinsky s de.
Z. wore usually economic. At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. along with economic steel nominated watered. requirements.
Mn. Z. did not wear anti-government character. Rab. during Z. often asked and petitions to the pr-woo, or directly to the king. In Dep. cases performances slave. led roar. clubs and parties. Sometimes Z. ended peacefully, but often clashed slave. with the police forces. So, strike a slave. Zlatoust s da in March 1903 was suppressed by the military command, and it was killed approx. 70 people.
During the roar. 1905-1907 and in 1917 was one of the Z. Ch. forms not only economic, but also watered. struggle.
In January. March. Participated in strikes in 1905 9.4 thousand. (4.9% of all strikers per year) workers of the Urals, in April. June 49 th. (25.3%), in July, September. 34 th. (17.4%). Autumn isolated actions of workers have grown into the All-Russian political strike. In October. December. went on strike in the region of 102.2 thousand. workers (52.4%). In general, the strike movement in the U. in 1905 was weaker than in the central areas of the country. In 1906, W. was 102 strikes, which were attended by 52.9 thousand. Workers. In the first half of 1907 in the province have been 69 strikes with the number of participants of 30.8 thousand. Almost no descended strike movement in the Vyatka and Orenburg Province. Most of the strikes was of an economic nature.
Did not stop the strike movement and after the revolution. In the second half of 1907 Ural workers held strikes 32, 1908 26, 1909 21 strike movement was on the wane, but its level was higher than before the revolution. In 1910-1911 there were 63 W. strike in 1912-1913 104 denote the rise of the labor movement in the region is clearly evident in the first half of 1914, when there were 92 strikes. Since the beginning of World War I their number has decreased dramatically. In 1915 W. 39 strikes took place, in 1916 69 most actively advocated working Beloretskogo, Minyar, Motovilikhinsky s-ing.
During the peaceful development of the revolution of 1917 the strike movement in the U. was small, but then began to grow. Sep 1. 1917 to call the 2nd Congress of Soviets of the Urals are held political general strike, which was attended by 110 thousand. Working-ing 85 of the region. In Sept. 1917 W. 130 strikes took place, they involved more than 128 thousand. Man began seizure of factories workers, peasants and soldiers shirilos movement.
During civil. War of 1918-20 were not uncommon Z. slave. and employees on ur. enterprises, as directed against Kolchak and against owls. power.
For 20-30 s and up to the Second World War (1941-1945) Z. remained in ur arsenal. slave. as a means of struggle to improve the conditions of their labor. Especially large swept through Z. D in 1923 and 1925-1926. Stopped work slave. Visa Nadezhdinsky comb one of a number of private companies. In 1926, only ur. companies, is unionized gornorab. and metalworkers took 68 strikes. Most of them ended with the implementation of the part of the Admiral. Regular. participation requirements. performances.
With the consolidation of the Stalinist watered. regime, its punitive nature, as well as neck-cerned relative improvement mat. life of a slave., the mass strike movement has come to naught. OH became exceptional out of the ordinary, a single fact.
In the 50-70 th, in the context of liberalization and stabilization watered. mode rejection of egregious excesses of mass terror, state of emergency and partial improvement of social services. parameters of the country’s development, Z. as a form of economic struggle ur. slave. was rehabilitated. Math. West to Kungur heavy machinery. s de myasokomb and Orsk-te (1959), a number of others. enterprises.
Speeches wore spontaneous, local and SHORT
character. As a rule, all the requirements of a slave. met and became a scapegoat instigators of disorders and guide enterprises (adm., desks., and trade union bodies).
Since 1985 Z. again become a mass phenomenon and reflect a picture of the general crisis of society. system. Along with economic demands, the strikers began to put forward watered. Aimed at democratization of societies. failure. At the forefront of the mass strike movement that developed in the country in the spring of 1989, the miners were ur. coal enterprises. The peak of the mass demonstrations of workers W. for their rights occurred in 1991-1992.
In the mid. 1990 strike movement has undergone a new rise, with most hours. Strikes wore economic.
Lit .: Gorshkov SV On the occurrence of labor disputes at the light industry in the Urals in the 1950-1960 period. // Problems of Russian history, from traditional to industrial society. Yekaterinburg, 1996; History of the Urals in the period of capitalism. M., 1990; The victory of the October Socialist Revolution in the Urals. Sverdlovsk, 1967; Proshina NM Trade unions and the protection of the interests of workers in the NEP years 1921-1928 (based on trade union associations metalworkers and miners of the Urals): Diss. Candidate. ist. Sciences. Ekaterinburg, 1993.
Author: S. Gorshkov, VF Mamonov