The evolution of the tribal system. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age

The transition to the era of metal was long and because of the particular historical conditions is not simultaneous. The earliest metal tools Turkey, Iran, Mesopotamia refer to VII-VI millennium BC. e., in our country (southern Turkmenistan, Caucasus, south-western Ukraine and Moldova) — to the line V-IV millennium BC. e., and the Urals — the turn of the IV-III millennia BC. e.

In the era of early metal distinguish two periods: the Chalcolithic (proper use of copper tools) and Bronze Age (the use of bronze tools).

In the Urals, has developed one of the six oldest centers of metallurgy in the USSR *, though he appeared much later than the south: Kopetdag, Caucasus, Balkan-Carpathian. According to geological and geographical conditions of the Ural Mining and Metallurgical region is divided into two centers: Priuralsky — with modest means copper sandstones and Zauralskiy or actually Ural with oxidized ores containing native copper and leaving close to the surface of the ore bodies. In ancient times, primarily used in the most available for development of oxidized ore deposits. They are low-melting, their extraction was carried out openly.

Information about the ancient mines have been preserved in the archives of the works of scholars and XVII-XVIII centuries. According to legend, at these places to mine «queer» people — «Chud». Hence the name «Chud mines», «Chud copy.» We also know that «Chud Mine» is the starting point for searches Russian prospectors XVII-XVIII centuries. The vast majority of ancient mines were destroyed during the later developments.

In the Bronze Age n the early Iron Age is becoming more uneven socio-economic development of the population of the Urals. Change of the productive forces, not everywhere and not all are equally dynamic, leading to a variety of rates and levels of the historical process. It was exacerbated by a long, traditional and distant relations of exchange, the influence of the more developed societies and cultures. Further development of the economy in some areas and the Company is determined to improve and spread of manufacturing industries, primarily steel and ranching. Economy, while remaining mostly complex, reconstructed through coordination and subordination industries specialize in metallurgy, animal husbandry and fishing hunting, foraging and transform household on the basis and under the influence of producing. Over a wide area from the tundra to the steppes formed various economic and cultural types.

Economic shifts corresponded to the social: not simultaneously, but everywhere there is a decomposition of primitive society. On the socio-economic and cultural transformations, due to internal reasons, leave their imprint in constant touch and movement groups and sopredelelnogo Ural population, especially the efforts of the early Iron Age. It is primarily about the relationship between the Finno-Ugric peoples with Indo-European, expressed in economic and cultural influence of the past, as well as partial or complete assimilation of Finno-Ugric peoples of the Urals steppe Indo-Europeans.

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