Turnout: Bolshegalyanskaya, 144

     The advent of capitalism in Russia inevitably led to the rapid growth of the proletariat, including, and in the Urals. Here, from 1865 to 1900, the number of workers increased almost three times, and the army of the proletariat of the Urals there were more than 100 thousand people. Moreover, the Ural craftsmen to be the most brutal exploitation. The working day was completely dependent on the arbitrariness of the breeder and was 12-16 hours. Because of technical backwardness many works, especially in the metallurgical industries were conducted manually. For example, the ore on the furnace top blast furnace was raised by hand, as it took place the filling.

    Increasingly, Demidov’s factories, mines, railways skirmishes with the authorities. Especially aggravated the situation in December 1892 when the police described the house 300 workers for sale at auction to pay off arrears Zemsky fees. This caused an outcry.

    Workers elected three commissioners: Kislov, Shamin, Soloshina and sent them to the police officer warned that if the police did not stop the recovery of arrears, the factory will rebel. In response, the police arrested the commissioners. Then 200 workers went to the local court and demanded the release of those arrested. District Commander refused, he was beaten, released prisoners and defiantly marched through the village. The authorities were forced to call from Perm military command. One of the participants in these events mentioned miner IJ Dobrodeev.

    At the same time, Ural working was firmly attached to the plant, because in the case of dismissal he was deprived of the right to use land allotment, mowing and practical housing, because settle in the factory town to another job was impossible. Widespread in the Urals system "Gulevo days". Under the guise of "care" the welfare of the artisans, the breeder, not dismissing them, forced to work a full week, and in July and August at all factories stopped due to lack of water, and work in this time "mowing", As they said then, wages were not paid.

    Ural proletarians were powerless and politically, they are completely at the mercy of the factory management. Factory population was completely illiterate.

    From Lenin "Sparks"

    Among the Populists, and part of the Social Democrats at the end of the XIX century was an opinion that the working of the Ural can not be considered a proletarian because he was connected with the land, sow bread, had cattle.

    VI Lenin in one of the first works "Handicraft census of 1894-1895. in the province of Perm and general questions cottage industry" based on extensive data exposed the falsity of such views and unconditionally reckoned Urals mining and metallurgical workers are among the most oppressed proletarians, and pointed out that for them out of bondage in the proletarian revolution.

    A few years later the railroad, factories and mines workers read Lenin "Spark", The work of Illich "Explanation of the Law on Fees". Deployed its work among the workers scattered local circles of the Social Democrats. In Tagil in the early centuries of its advanced workers were Habarov A., Baranov, F. Koz’min, I. Dobrodeev, L. Telyshkov, E. Samoilov "gornozavodtsy" mining school students A. Lutsenko, Gubin, A. Petrov, F. Volkov.

    A general guide to the Urals Social Democrats tried to carry the SR "Ural Union".

    "Ural Union", Pointed "Iskra", Was unable to hold any major political campaign against the tsarist regime. He was not able to use for the political education of the people or of the authorities over the killings Votkinskaya workers or workers shooting Zlatoust". Soon, this alliance collapsed and ceased to exist forever.


    One spring day in 1904 in a house on Godea Bolshegalyanskoy knocked the fat man with glasses. Small beard, mustache gave him a kind of intelligent factory employee, intelligent eyes, some a little shy smile possessed him.

    Do not pass, the host, the room for the summer? he asked.

    Yes, as if there were going to take, said the man, Ivan Yakovlevich Dobrodeev. And after some hesitation, asked what wages put?

    Neighbors with the eternal curiosity already listened to the conversation with a stranger bargaining Dobrodeev.

    Yes, all that is necessary will pay!

    Well if so to settle, live, agreed to host, and so the conversation ended. Dobrodeeva lodger was a seasoned professional operatives Semyon Zalkind, who arrived in Nizhny Tagil on the instructions of the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks. Now the apartment Dobrodeeva needed for the 1st Regional Conference of the Ural and in order not to arouse suspicion, Zalkind under the guise of summer resident lived in this house for Bolshegalyanskoy, 144.

    Ivan Yakovlevich Dobrodeev kind of indigenous Uralic artisan with 13 years went to work at Copper Mine, participated actively in the work of the Social-Democratic circles together with advanced miners revolutionaries Baranov, F. Kozmin, metalworkers Tagil plant Opletinym E., P. Telyshkovym, E. Gaev, railroad A. Bessonov, A. Shamim, G. Naugolnykh and others.

    According to the recollections of the old Bolsheviks, it was a brave strong man. He often participated in gatherings and may feast, was one of the organizers of labor unrest in the copper mines, was entirely Leninist positions.

    Not by chance came on the instructions of the Central Committee of the Leninist party in Nizhny Tagil prominent revolutionary professional, experienced undergrounder SI Zalkind close friends with IJ Dobrodeev who actively ran errands Tagil leader of the Bolsheviks, was considered one of the most decisive in the Tagil organization.

    Looking ahead, we will talk about the sensational in the Urals operations to seize dynamite. In April 1906, Committee of the RSDLP Ekaterinbugsky instructed Taghilsky Bolsheviks get game dynamite bomb-making. Knew that the explosives available on Vysokogorskom mine, but it is carefully guarded. And the combat squad led by IJ Dobrodeev, which included Gubin, Titov, I. Eremeyev, assigned to take the dynamite. Arresting guards, retainers seized several pounds of dynamite and handed him over to the Ekaterinburg Committee. During this IJ Dobrodeev was sentenced to exile, but he escaped and continued his revolutionary activities.

    By the summer of 1904 there was a need of uniting the scattered circles in a single organization. Conspiratorial reasons, 1st Ural Regional Conference of the RSDLP was decided to be held in Nizhny Tagil. Here there was a strong core Bolshevik revolutionaries, was less gendarmes and spies, and the situation at the plant and the mine was quiet. Training conference instructed SI Zalkind, relying on his experience of clandestine knowledge of local conditions. As mentioned above, the purpose of the conspiracy, he settled in a house on Dobrodeeva Bolshegalyanskoy street at number 144 The place is quiet, neighbors reliable workers. Gathered here 1st Ural Regional Conference of the RSDLP, which adopted the Charter of the Ural RSDLP Committee, set up a single centralized management of all social-democratic organizations in the Urals. And in this great merit IJ Dobrodeeva.

    Tragically on the 37th year ended the life of one of the first Tagil revolutionary Leninists IJ Dobrodeeva. In 1908, he was arrested, and a year later he was tortured in Nikolaev polurotkah as then called the Turin prison.


References: Newspaper "Taghilsky working" from 6/28/84.

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