Ural craftsmen

   Over the river Tagil, a mountain
slope has long stood syrodutnyh kilns in
which received Voguls wrought iron from ore
Mountain High. Demidov then took it habitable
place and it has for many years called
Vogulsky forges. Here forged horses
mending carts and sleds, did crowbars, shovels and
solid utensils needed in the construction of
the first in the county Vyisky copper smelting, and for
them Nizhny Tagil iron-

   Yes, the first artisans
used for the manufacture of iron ogarochnym
tools and weapons. This gave a
doughy mass softened Krizia in
which remained slag. Forging his Kritsa
managed to partially remove. Welding metal
satisfy human needs first.

   However, developing and re-
emerging craft already in antiquity required
more durable metal than wrought iron. For
all cutting tools (scythes, sickles, knives), for
bladed weapons and a number of tools needed
metal which is treated as accessible
then means but whose products have been
solid, with a sharp cutting edge. These conditions are
meet carbon steel, forged out of it
relatively easy to obtain the necessary

   Most common in
Russia was a way to get raw lifestyle
steel, which is made from Kritsa welding
iron. When heated in hot Kritsa
charcoal metal surface
Carbonized. In the process of cooling water
or snow stalisty quenched layer,
become fragile and easily separated at impact.
The operation was repeated until complete conversion Kritsa
in sheets. Most large sheets stacked on
embers (hence the name of this method —
way) and heated to welding. Glowing mass
acquired a dense structure. Of lifestyle
was prepared by cold weapons, sickles, etc.

   In the first half of the XVIII century
there are two other ways of production
alloy steel and iron cementation
crucible melting. Especially a lot of produced
carburized steel in the Urals. So, in 1800, on the
Lower-Iset Plant was being built
factory for rolling cemented steel, and in
next year it produced its 1,467 pounds.
Cemented iron and Upper Iset,
Nevyansk, Kasli, Alapayevsk, Pozhevskom,
Kata-Ivanovo, Revdinsky and other Uralic

   In the 1799-1901 period. at the Kama plant
for the manufacture of new and repair "old cannon
drills, chisels, bars and protchaya was used
steel, buy at Nizhny Tagil factories".1

   Artisan Antrop Kets,
one of the experts in the steelmaking
Nizhneturinsk state-owned factories, offered
method manufacture of high-quality steel
lifestyle "through a simple jam or incandescence
coal" in special furnaces of the form
cut along the length of the cylinder. Then here is
advanced significantly ahead LY Simbirtsev,
arrived from Nizhny Tagil and train new
method in Lower Tour Demida Krokhaleva. Later on
the same factory production improved
steel tagilchanin Andrey Subbotin transmitted
their skills to the same Krokhaleva ..

   Steelworker Nizhnetagilskogo
Lev Yakovlevich Simbirtsev plant came from
Molotov family wizard. He created a furnace
continuous process of cementation. "His way of
and means for receiving steel consisted
protsementovanii iron (cast iron and even NM)
cement kiln, at a similar outward appearance
now (1820 NM), consumed herewith
(Nizhneturinsk NM) plant at its inner
device was perfectly fine".
"Steel Simbirtseva, remove from the oven, had
"wrack and krupnoblestyaschuyu view, but not in
the whole mass of a flat rash that when forged
turns into a fine-grained".

   Famous Brand Ural
iron "Old Sable" especially famous in
XVIII century Russian gold industry when
Russia took first place in the world
metal production, ahead of England and Sweden. In
Russia, however, the main metallurgical base
was the Urals. In the middle of the XVIII century there
produced up to two thirds of the total metal

   A significant role in the achievements of
Ural factories played activities
prominent mining engineers, metallurgists. PP
Anosov many years spent on research
crucible process, revealing the secret of smelting
Damascus steel (1833). PM Obukhov found a way to
mass production of cast steel and in 1860
Zlatoust Russian first cast steel gun.
KP Polenov developed a variant of converting,
theoretical foundation which gave VE
Groom Grzhimailo started his factory
activities in Nizhny Tagil factories.

   Of a large dynasty
Makarov related Nizhnetagilskom
plants, the most noticeable mark left
talented engineer and metallurgist Ivan
Makarov (1793-1844).

   Since 1811 the service began IF
Makarova Tagil factories in different
positions. Was a clerk Nizhni Tagil
plant, and in 1833 became the interim manager
Salda plants. Together with the mechanics
Cherepanov was actively involved in
Reconstruction Tagil plant development
mechanical production. The name of Makarov
associated with a number of improvements in the domain and
bloomery industries. To monitor
entering the heat in the oven, he created a device
"Duhomer", Setting it into the nozzle of the furnace, and
also a special lift for ore and coal to
blast furnace, which resembles a modern

   IF Makarova was sent
for the study of the manufacture of steel
braids in Vienna and Chrysostom (1836). From there it is reported that
1835 represented samples of cast iron, which
"converted into steel"Ie it is, regardless of
Anosov mastered getting cast metal. More in
the beginning of 1830. Makarov built on their project
oven, in which the glands produce not bloomery
or puddling process, and through a series of
"Special transitions of iron": Melting
and decarburization. For improvement
stagnant production in 1840 IF Makarov was
freed from serfdom.

   The contribution of the Urals
masters in the development of rolling iron. Strip and
tires give the Urals to the mills,
known under the name of crushing machines. They
smooth rolls had been introduced at the
Yekaterinburg plant in 1723 more sophisticated
rolls with calibrated streams used for
Ural factories before 1756 First
sheet rolling mill was established in 1782 to
Chermozskom plant, almost simultaneously with the
the appearance of this type of equipment in the UK.
By the end of the century the same sheet rolling mills had
Sylvensky Nevyansky and factories in the Urals.

   Successful experiments rental
rails were carried out on plants Nizhny Tagil
Demidova and Chermozskom plant Lazarev. In the first
case to the case was involved in an employee Salda
mountain plants Yakima S. Kolnogorov.
Stray from shop "Mailing"This
land nugget came in the top of the plant
administration, and at the end of life held
the position of assistant manager Tagil
plants on the technical side. Remarkable
natural giftedness, tireless energy
let it make a lot of self-taught
technical innovations, particularly in the
improvement and creation of puddling
relsoprokatnogo production.

   The first track of the Tagil
metal were rolled Vyksa plant.
Knowing the state of the Tagil factories and reluctance
AN Demidov engage at rolling rails
Vyksunskij breeder, ID SHepelev proposed
tagilchanam start joint production
rails. Demidov accepted the proposal in June 1843
transactions between breeders place.

   In 1844 in the navigation at Vyksa
Chusovoi rivers, Kama, Volga and Oka floated
Kolomenka with Taghilsky iron was sent
more than 160 thousand. pounds. And soon there has arrived "on
redistribution of iron in the rails and to explore
puddling and rail business warden
Lower-Salda plant Ya Kolnogorov. Together with
it was seven workers and one installer".

   Soon VYKSA office,
fearing that the dressing rails will cause them great
losses under various pretexts, beginning to shy away
from new production. Later Tagil Iron
was processed in the lane and varietal iron.
Rolling it also led Tagil

   Tagilchanam had
establish its own production of rails. In
April 1848 in Lower Salda allowed two
puddling, welding and drying ovens.
Started production puddling iron
Tagil factories that soon put
relsoprokatnomu base case.

   In 1854, factory owners
ventured to supply rails for
Petersburg-Warsaw railway. In
October of the same year JS Kolnogorov went to
Petersburg for a personal explanation from Demidov on
the possibility of taking an order for the supply of rails
and the establishment of production itself. On arrival in
Lower Salda relsoprokatchik immediately engaged
capital works on a rail
production. Were rebuilt and puddling
welding furnace, built new.
Reconstructed natal group and put
two new mill. There are mechanical
Devices: saws for cutting the ends of the rails,
eight presses for straightening rails. Install and
again three steam engines.

   In 1855, the Tagil plants
began a systematic rolling rails for
Russian railways. For
Petersburg-Warsaw railway rails
contracted to do the heirs Demidova (1,200 thousand.
pounds) and heirs Yakovleva (1500 thousand. pounds). By 1856
plants, with the Yakovlev were taken samples
rails in quality above the English and "quite
all the requirements of the relevant".

   Ten years after
beginning of rail production at Tagil
plants have been there a writer and physician NA
Griffon. The track essay he wrote for inspection
Lower-Salda plant "which is very
curious because it is the only Plant have
us, which prepares the rails in Russia".
He further noted that the production of rails so
absolutely that Nicholas Road are almost no

   Nizhny Tagil plants
always occupied an important place among the Ural
enterprises. Their master innovators constantly
contribute to the technical development
iron industry.

N. Mezenin.

&# 8212;&# 8212;&# 8212;&# 8212 —

    1 This and all subsequent
quotations are taken from the book of AG Kozlov "Creators
science and technology in the Urals". Sverdlovsk, 1981.

References: Newspaper
"Taghilsky working" from 12.01.1982.

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