July 3, 1914, Thursday. Gulf of Finland, Kronstadt. On the barrel to «raid Standard» stands in the retinue of 5 destroyers — «the Army», «Volunteer», «Moskvityanin», «Emir of Bukhara,» «Finn» and the schooner «North Star» — the imperial yacht-beauty with 3 little folded out aft masts. In its form of restrained pride, but not arrogance; simplicity, grandeur and dignity.
August family the other day, July 1, returned to her from the Crimea. Ordinary swimming, which from year to year being accomplished for 6 years to the mutual enjoyment and crowned passengers and crew. Yacht gorgeous and young, as a schoolgirl graduating class; it laid on the Copenhagen shipyard October 1, 1893 in the presence of Emperor Alexander III, and was launched on 18 months, in the day of his birth, February 26, after the death of the ruler. Because in the first voyage in September later, in 1896 it took the captain swore already brand new monarch, Nicholas II.
All who sailed on her, adored her beautiful interiors, made by the artist L. Montergom, and the special atmosphere of comfort and mellowness, hovers in the cabins, crew spaces on the deck, even though it was a military ship and without the permission of the ruler is not it nothing was done not raised the anchor, not lowered flags and did not change course.
July 3rd. «Wonderful, is not particularly hot day with the S (south. — VF) a breeze,» — wrote the governor in his diary. Ordinary day, which went on long routine, to give life for residents yacht pleasant predictability. «In the morning, a ride with O (lgoy) and T (atyanoy) to deuce. To start breakfast everyday outfit 6 officers from floating vessels with us … After tea, read and signed the paper sent NIGHT MODE «- continued the ruler of a diary entry. What kind of paper brought to him a messenger? Now it is unprincipled. Not counting one. For her sake, I singled out in the middle of the diary entries only one that made the 3rd of July.
On this day, the governor approved the endorsement by the Municipal Council and the State Duma of the «Law on the Establishment of the Mining Institute in the town of Yekaterinburg,» is written in the upper left corner of the sheet with the text of the law: «So be it.»
That’s right, in the everyday life of the imperial weekdays, between breakfast with culinary delights Yermolayeva baker and dinner, the maitre d ‘who was a famous restaurateur Pierre Kyuba St. Petersburg, under the glass of «His Majesty’s own port» and two or three glasses of French champagne «Geydzik monopole» special blend or Russian «Abrau Durso», came a remarkable event in the history of the Urals.
Not only the event — but the dream cherished by many generations of the Urals. That dream finally embodied, it was necessary to overcome many challenges and obstacles. Less time left until the desired «So be it», so it became unbearable wait. How slowly walked out of the Crimea yacht «Standart». And then it happened!
First news of the imminent resolution of the question of a suitable Mining Institute in Yekaterinburg learned when the imperial yacht was still far from Kronstadt. June 30 Mayor AE Butts received a telegram from the members of the Municipal Council of Baron V. Meller-Zakomelsky, VI Timiryazeva FA Ivanov and monetary committee chairman Admiral AA Birileva. Admiral, heart congratulating Urals, reported that «… the bill is approved without changes. Make it to the last meeting of the Council almost succeeded. On days of high approval shall follow. » Meller Zakomelsky added that the bill was «adopted the monetary committee of the Council of … thanks especially vigorous activity and professionally delivered by FA Ivanov protect «him, and Timiriazev recalled how he had in 1909,» appealed to the State Duma for help Urals, speaking of him, that, like the sleeping beauty he expects will not wait, so he awoke again to the fruitful work … I am sure that the new hotbed higher mining education will serve a good service to the forthcoming welfare eternal field of metallurgy in Russia. «
On the same day sent a telegram to all Obukhov, thanks to Ivanov for the brilliant defense of the bill, not only from themselves, and from the «students Urals dear to us,» which «sends Russian thanks to you and all those who labor and care Yekaterinburg became a hotbed of light and knowledge, «hoping that in the future» impartial historian of the town will make your names on the tablets of history. » The 30th of June in the same town council brought together members of the commission to establish the Mining Institute to compile thank telegrams and Obukhov told them, that they reported that now young people who want to go to college may send this petition to St. Petersburg in the name of Managing the education department of the Ministry of Trade and Industry AE Lagorio.
But the governor has not yet signed the bill, although the fact that he will approve it, there was no hesitation. What’s the hurry? But it is justified for those who have long expected. How to keep cheerful emotions here:
Hooray! Crowned our work!
Give us the Mining Institute.
And, the soul of his fun,
For your health, I drink! —
so poetically Obukhov congratulated own associate mining engineer Nikolai Stepanovich Mikheev, with the success of their common cause.
Proceedings of the capital, published in local newspapers, inspiring people to take immediate action. So, «give us the Mining Institute.» And where are we to place it? Members of the commission to establish the Institute, meeting, instructed the mayor not only send a telegram to the Chairman and members of the State Council, and the Ministry of Commerce said that in the town there is the room in which you can temporarily place the institute. Obukhov and without a clue has already appealed to the Right Reverend Seraphim with a request to give up on the future of the institution 2-3 years frat house St. Simeon Verkhotursk that on the 1st street Epiphany, recalling that the house for this purpose, was at one time promised to the previous bishop Mitrofan , and of Reverend Seraphim himself in conversation with him, the mayor, and chairman of District Zemstvo AM Simanov declared its readiness to transfer the building under the Mining Institute. Once with the same request and Obukhov addressed to the Board of brotherhood.
But if 2-3, the Institute will be located temporarily in a frat house St. Simeon, where live the «missing» students, those who are unable to stay in the city apartment? For these you need to build a hostel. But where to take money? Here Butts recalled that beheld in the papers of the deceased member of the town council GI Mikhailova subscription eminent urban residents, which they pledged to the city cash resources to the needs of the coming of the Mining Institute. Such subscriptions have issued more than a 10-ka person in an amount exceeding 45 thousand rubles. In the midst of the signatories were brothers Zlokazova, VM Imshenetskiy, GG Kazantsev, PI Belenkov, PI Tarasov and others. Not counting them huge sums subscribed Ural plant management. That and the right tools, if not a «but.» Many of the signatories have died: Is the paper that they used to be signed? Counsel appealed to the city, and he said that «the subscription is valid with respect to the living and the dead, and that the funds required to pay the heirs.» Then the council and decided to collect these funds and to build on their dormitory, giving it the names of the donors.
The idea that the town will institute mutila consciousness of ordinary people. How naughty kids, they want it to appear immediately. City government precipitated wanting to go to college; nonresident kept sending petitions and requests; post office was inundated with letters with the address: «The Office of the Mining Institute of Yekaterinburg», but since this was not, the office did not have the ability to pass them on purpose. Ranks of the council, the charter of gesturing, telegraphed in the capital, said that the city is prepared for the Institute premises, and asked who is the director and doctors. Training Division of the Ministry of Commerce said nothing, and then the town council has recommended a question go directly to the educational department of the ministry.
More impatient sent AE Lagorio telegram:
«Honor, we have to ask you not to refuse to say when it will be open the Mining Institute in Yekaterinburg. Whether for admission to the Institute of Competition exams or certificates. What rate will be used for the reception of the Jews. Will be accepted to college graduated from the Ural Mining School. Where to file petitions and documents and any documents, or copies of the original. Will be given preference in admission to the natives of the Urals, Urals … «
«Ural life» wrote that the days are meant to refer to the AE Lagorio and the target of today’s proposal to open an institute in the fall.
Such pressure has forced open the mouth Lagorio and telegraph that «unfortunately, the opening of the Mining Institute in real academic year could not take place. Law on the Establishment of the Mining Institute of the Ministry has not been received. Questions raised in the telegram will be resolved in the destination director formation of academic staff and to develop rules for admission. «
Tried to extinguish the ardor of impatience and a member of the Municipal Council of FA Ivanov, writing Obukhov and transparent City Council PV Ivanov and SA Bibikov, so Urals did not insist on the immediate opening of the institute, in no hurry with the selection of professors and directors and would deal better preparations for the construction of the structure of the Institute «by the blank construction materials.» The members of the Commission for the Establishment of the Institute heeded the advice and all the efforts put by the mayor, offering him a trip recently to the capital and there in the educational department of the Ministry of Commerce to agree «on the representation at the disposal of even the chief of the Ural mountain plants PI Egorova special loans for procurement of construction materials. «
Philistine environment raskipevshayasya as samovar became uniformly cool, so inflame already from the other events, the arrival in Ekaterinburg Their Highnesses Princess Victoria of Battenberg and his daughter Louise. The other day, the arrival of almost all night until the morning on July 15 the city is clean and well decorated. Eager for the spectacle public from 6 am began to take place in a train station, patiently waiting your four hours before the arrival of the train with the sovereigns.
The text of the Law on Mining Institute Ural met a 2-rooms «Mountain and gold mining news» in the «Statutes and Decrees.» Reading and rereading the document, the first time they were able to see the «outline» of the future «hotbed of knowledge.»
So, in the law, he was called «Yekaterinburg Mining Institute» and endowed with the status of a higher education institution; its layout was the St. Petersburg Mining Institute of the Empress Catherine II. Because students who have completed «a program of studies and tests specified by legislation, of the Mining Institute of the Empress Catherine II, and protection established for receiving the diploma work» bestowed «the title and privileges assigned to individuals who have graduated from the Mining Institute of the Empress Catherine II, with the rank of a mining engineer.» Uniform coats of future graduates of the Ural had to decorate signs «special sample».
And while the minister of trade and industry had to attend to, so no later July 1, 1916 have been appointed rector and 5 professors from among persons who satisfy the requirements of the doctors of the Mining Institute of the Empress Catherine II, to form a «council of the said persons Mining Institute in the town of Yekaterinburg «.
Brain University — Rector, doctors advice. Law he gave the right to determine the structure of the institute, its faculties, departments, specialties and the number of students. Because the law was silent about it, but he was a long-winded (but accurate to rate), when it came to money. Costs of construction and institutional arrangements have been defined «in an amount not higher than 2-million, nine hundred forty-2-thousand rubles.» In 1914, out of the funds, the State Treasury had to «let go … to start building the institution and apparatus …» less than 300 thousand. Rubles and on personnel, training and economic costs of the 78,515 rubles, «with the allocation of this expense in the anticipated savings from the intent of State mural expenditures for 1914. «
From what sources have been draws funds for the establishment of the University? To do this, state revenue has been accessed benefits Municipal Treasury «of the Perm province zemstvo — in the amount of 500 thousand rubles, from Ekaterinburg city management — three hundred thousand rubles, Yekaterinburg county zemstvo — two hundred thousand rubles and Okhansky county zemstvo — 5 thousand rubles with the introduction of the above amounts the State Treasury for the 1914 and 1915 years in equal installments. «
These funds are a million rubles with a small Ural Ekaterinburg Zemstvo and the authorities collected in advance. State Treasury only in 1918 was to let funds for the upkeep of the Institute, the training part and scholarships to 236,630 rubles a year, and before that the «size of the need for the same need credits to determine the estimated order within the boundaries of the state calculated at the loan.»
Government, giving the right to establish the Urals Institute, acted not as a sponsor, as exacting creditor, providing, however, and some benefits in the form of duty-free purchases abroad textbooks and different machines, also uncensored acquisition of books, manuscripts, and «time-based», that is, . e. repetitive, publications «scientist content.»
Above the Law of the Yekaterinburg Mining Institute worked great number of officials from various departments, it sieved through discussion, debate and discussions in the commissions and committees in the State Duma and the Municipal Council — and surprisingly, bureaucratic Emery gave initial formless plan good facet in especially that part of the law in which it came to pensions and salaries content. Bureaucrats may have presented themselves in the position of professors and teachers in a small provincial town. Presented and realized how difficult it will be to them a refined residents of the capital, intellectuals and aesthetes, maybe snobs live in the middle of the seventy thousand townspeople, farmers, artisans, workers and merchants; walk on unpaved streets where the wind picks up in the heat of mineral dust and bad weather makes them impassable from the mud; live in homes where there is electricity and phone, but there is no sewerage and water supply; drink being brought in barrels water main, however, «a wonderful savory and clean»; attend two theaters, read three newspapers yes «Notes» Wole and honey society. Local attractions? They can be counted on the fingers and get around this week: Cathedral and St. Catherine’s Cathedral, Novo-Tikhvin Nunnery; iron busts of the reigning wife of Peter I and Catherine I, the dam of the city pond and monument to Alexander II the Liberator in the main square; naistareyshaya in Russia magnetic and meteorological observatory, seismic station, Imperial Lapidary Factory — that’s about all.
However, according to the views of all-knowing «Brockhaus and Efron», Yekaterinburg was one of the best and populous city in the European part of Russia, well-appointed, with gardens, boulevards, parks, a pond in the center, set in a granite embankment, and … railway workshops at the very center. But I think the drafters of the «Encyclopedic Dictionary» flattered town, relying on the help of the creator of it.
Adekvatnomyslyaschie drafters decided that the scarcity and unsettled life in the province must be paid not enthusiastic professors, salaries and maintenance, which consisted of salary, canteens and residential facilities. In 1914, the Russian simple doctor received in year 4500 rubles, 300 rubles more than the deputy of the State Duma, and 5 times more than the skilled worker, what was then the driver of the locomotive.
By law, the State Mining Institute was to consist of the rector, dean, secretary of the council, 19 ordinary and extraordinary professors, teacher of theology, 15 full-time teachers, 19 senior and junior technicians, preparator, museum curator, 6 lecturers, librarians, and his assistant, 7 employees office, building superintendent, designer, doctor and paramedic. Apartments were provided only to the rector, two clerical workers, the superintendent of the structure of the Institute but the assistant who had the smallest salary content 480 rubles per year; greatest — Rector, he posts the content on a simple doctor minus 750 rubles apartment added 2,500 rubles, ie he received 6,250 rubles and a penny more.
Section of the law on salaries and pensions wide. Quote from him only three Fri: «superannuation May 20 years and more than 30 years and half a retiring 20 years and more than 5 years to 20 appointed from the salary of three thousand rubles for a simple doctor and two thousand rubles for the extraordinary doctor and length of service and more than 30 years, said persons receiving a pension in the following sizes: a simple doctor four thousand 500 rubles and an extraordinary doctor — three thousand rubles (ie salary pension was content. — VF). Salaries pensions so do not grow after, over 30 years service. «
Very chchelovechen law was, and to the doctors, «obsessed with languid and incurable diseases, which deprived them not only the ability to continue to serve, and to do without constant care party.» Such «when retired retirement: have served from 5 to 10 years — one third of the salary; have served 10 to 20 years — two-thirds of their salary and served for 20 years and more than — full salary. «
In the Russian higher school doctors awarded the title of Honored doctor, which gave the right to maintain a pension in excess of the salary is at the service of the Institute.
With such a careful attitude to the country’s own intellectual elite «brain drain» from the country actually was not. Abroad, leaving those who were not in harmony with the law, or for political reasons, but these were few. So that was a reason to go to serve in the provincial university.
If the head of the training department telegram AE Lagorio calmed the Urals, the telegram Governor Ivan Frantsevich cats, sent by the chief of police on July 20 GI Rupinskomu, oh, how alarmed. Governor telegraphed: «Declare population: Germany declared war on Russia. I call on the population to such a heavy moment merge and maintain a serious procedure, remembering that every outrage and violence of the hands of our enemy, that they will rejoice because mess reduce force. May God help us to win the bold and terrible enemy. «
The war began, which later called the First World. Governor, urging people to order, better than many realize what a terrible enemy coveted Russia and some catastrophic Heaviest will fight with him, what hope is only in God less than a ritual formula. God is a God, and of itself is not bad either. Hardness and confidence of the governor was his position, which seems to have had no ruler.
July 19 the governor wrote in his diary: «In the morning reports were commonplace. After breakfast called Nikolasha and told him about his destiny supreme commander until I came into the army. Travelled with Alix in Diveevo monastery. Walked with the children. In 61/2 went to vespers. Upon his return learned that Germany declared war on us. Had dinner Olga A (leksandrovna), Dmitry and John (bowls.). In the evening came the British salting Buchanan with a telegram from Georgie. Long was together with him the answer. Later still beheld Nikolasha and Friderichsen. Sipping tea in 121/4 «.
Amazingly light-hearted response, neither shadow of excitement and anxiety, activity, did not seem to Germany declared war on the Russian Federation, and the ruler of the rights of the state, which has no case for war. Subjects behaved differently. On July 21, half of the 4th in Yekaterinburg in the Cathedral of the Most Reverend Seraphim served festive prayer for the victory of the Russian guns; newspapers began to publish messages from the theaters of war. Soon appeared in the town of the first wounded, and the Urals to the east went echelons of the prisoners that are configured in a friendly — the war ended for them — and divivshimisya tremendous latitude of.
The war was far away, people’s minds are not yet engorged her tragedy, and perhaps no one could predict its effects, even mystics and religious fanatics who have seen any abnormal natural phenomenon stern hand of fate or God. Such phenomena, like seismic foreshocks why any accompany wars, epidemics, revolutions.
August 4 at 9:00 am wavered bowels of the Ural Mountains — came to our region a rare event — an earthquake. It lasted less than one and a half minutes, scaring the people ran out of the house, a thunderous roar, crash walls, buzz windows, falling dishes and decrepit chimneys. Local seismologists explained to his movement of the earth’s crust. «After four days of townspeople watched the sun» eclipse «, and in the evening, about 6 hours, over St. Michael Cemetery in the direction of the Metropolitan tract proparhal» mysterious device «. Hundred square meters of interviews and statements found that in the last days of the aircraft once a day behold the pass at an unattainable height above the Yekaterinburg … «.
For anyone these phenomena have been fun, but many, especially the faithful and slabodushnyh, they disturb and frighten. Come debate about the predictions of the holy Scriptures, as «people will rise to the parody and the kingdom to kingdom, and there shall be famines, and be afraid on the whole earth.»
Sense of hope and excitement for the Urals together in unison. Satisfaction from the fact that the town will be a higher education institution, cut short hesitation. And will it be? Not prevent a war? War-farming, firmly and confidently, put a hand on as yet empty cradle, prepared for the Mining Institute, as once, almost two years ago, another war — North, stood at the cradle of the Urals mining and metallurgical schools — the forerunner of the coming of the Mining Institute.