Jacob Litvinova rightfully should be put first in a series pervoosvoiteley Ural bowels. Because it involves the emergence of a new Russian state and very important for the country’s industries – non-ferrous metallurgy. It was he who first pointed out the deposit, which was soon put the firstborn of the domestic industry mednoobrabatyvayuschey – Pyskorsky copper smelter.
Who is he, Jacob Litvinov?
Remained very little information about its origin, the path that led him to the Urals. One can only assume that, judging by the name, Jacob was the son of a Lithuanian – “Litvin”. Probably because of those who are in one of the battles of the Livonian War was in Russian captivity. In Stroganoff slaves Jacob could get quite common by then – was purchased by them from the sovereign, and is installed in the Permian fiefdoms. It is understandable why it interested Stroganoff: rudosysknom was well versed in the matter.
Yakov (Yakusha – by Stroganov lists) Litvinov turned sharp-witted, agile man. By 1617 – that is, when he first made mention of himself in the most important state documents – Jacob made a brilliant career: he was a “great Chamberlain” at Stroganoff, their main confidant. Anyway, it was he trusted hosts to notify sovereign order of the discovery in his domains of copper ore. With this kind of “izveta” rudoiskatelskie many “business” Litvinov already reflected in sovereign securities.
But before we dive into their study, we mention two important factors that determined this message.
First – why Stroganoff write about their findings in Moscow, and will not be accepted for the extraction of themselves as the country needs after the Time of Troubles Razor metal mining and smelting of copper, sulivshuyu them huge profits? That’s the thing – they did not have time for this right. Back in 1558, Ivan IV, allowing the search for and development of iron ore Stroganov firmly banned processing of other ores. And if he found any, then immediately had to bring that to Moscow. And God forbid disobey! Then states on the throne of the young Michael Romanov and his all-powerful relatives strictly blyuli its monopoly on the possible extraction of “money” metals – copper, silver and tin.
The second point – why Stroganoff “izvet” about the discovery of strategic raw materials commissioned to write his chief trustee? That is understandable why instructed to write – and so he was their most important papers. But why such a document entrusted serf sign? Here, I think the explanation is that the owners themselves were not experts in copper ores and around there was no one who could attest – yes, they say, your slave Yakushko Litvinov found is copper ore. Because it and sign a “izvet” made – he supposedly found himself and answer, if something goes wrong will. A pribytok still not up to us – the treasury.
Now back to that still told “big Chamberlain” Stroganoff sovereign’s officials. Neither more nor less, and that he found near the town of Eagle (Kargedo-on), and in many other places Perm land within the Stroganov estates are many deposits of copper ore, and with a content of gold.
Equally important news was immediately reported to who should, and almost immediately to check it from Moscow to Perm land detach representative commission. It consists of a nobleman Abraham I. Bertenev, clerk Gabriel Le Vonta, Fizzledowser and master goldsmith English Waterski, translator, three rudoplavilschikov. To oversee or gaining experience with them was sent son Boyarsky Alexey Golovin. At the site of the commission was included and Jacob Litvinov.
Interesting touch. Even without knowing exactly ore is whether, Moscow superiors gave strict orders – supervise suspicious foreigner Waterski to that, God forbid, “gold, or silver, or copper from the pots themselves do not let go”
Do not delay, Jacob Litvinov took sovereign envoys to find them on the river bank Yayva, near the village of Libyan, amazing Stone Mountain, a steep slope which, right at the water’s edge, were clearly visible layers of copper-bearing sandstones. Strips of these layers were visible in desyatisazhennom space above the water level, and five fathoms under water. The thickness of the individual layers of copper was – in terms of modern measures – i8, and 9, i35 cm. Apparently, Litvinov had already tried these ores himself because he drew the attention of the High Commission of the fact that the bottom layer – the richest.
Affixed commission workers quickly dug (from 5 to 10 July 1617) of the mountain 185 pounds of ore from which was derived soundly copper. The Englishman began to conduct trial smelting to highlight the copper still and gold. To the great chagrin of all, gold did not get a single gram. However, the results obtained here first poods domestic copper were triumphant hurried manner a report sent to Moscow.
Already on August 12 from Moscow to the Berteneva response was sent charter, in which he and his comrades were ordered to immediately organize in said Jacob Litvinov copper mines and build near a copper smelter in which they had “smelt ore” and, despite the negative results experienced heats Vatera, “gold to the copper look”
It should be said that the Stroganoff was at that time already a lot of trained people who knew how to look for sandstones containing copper. On the findings of such ores Jacob Litvinov informed the commission, citing that they have been notified to him “in-Gulich Cheul thin with his teammates,” Stroganoff peasants “Tommy Demidov” and “Petrushka Korybalov.” But Jacob Litvinov indication of one deposit of copper ore was not limited. He told the Moscow commission that de knows more and place in the lower reaches of the Pechora River, where there is a silver ore, and undertook to bring her. From this stunning news Muscovites were delighted and quickly sent Jacob to the Pechora to quickly he brought samples of the ore for smelting.
They hurried to Jacob that he did not give him time to bring them together to find another place for them with copper ores – to Grigorova mountain that stood on the bank of the Kama, not far from Solikamsk. Jacob went to the north, the force of his son Basil to show the place to Muscovites. With Basil on Mount Grigorov went Tselovalnik Osip. But Basil was not so tenacious memory of her father. Lost on the way to the right direction, zaplutal in the woods and on the father’s guidance to get out but could not. So who later became famous Grigorovskiy deposits Muscovites at the time did not open.
Meanwhile Jacob Litvinov scoured the Pechora shores, looking for silver ore. Soon he sends in Eagle town with pinezhaninom Bunch (Stroganov also a slave) a quarter pounds of rock, which, as he wrote to Litvinov, he showed earlier in some Germans, and the Germans said that “Ore silver. “
Of course, that breed immediately began to try. WATER ore sent by the master did not seem he had called her once empty clay and melting proved him right.
And with these Litvinov copper places also came out bad. While he went to the Pechora, Moscow emissaries, fulfilling the Tsar instructed to develop those ore, finished tunneling significant at the time the horizontal excavation. Its width and height were 4&# 215, 4 fathoms. Yes, in the depths of the mountain went to five fathoms. According to the modern development of measures that had the parameters of 8.5 x 8.5 x 10.7 meters. In the passed volume Ore met in small thin layers are deposited in hard rock, and copper in it was not enough. Master Waterski stated that the ore is too poor to lay the basis for its plant, and it is necessary to look for another, richer ore place.
Jacob waited Litvinova, may indicate something more suitable. In the meantime, he Pechora not only looking for new silver ore, but explored and old generation at Tsilma, and in November 1617 came from those places, bringing with him nearly twenty pounds there the ore. Delivered them ore master Waterski divided into two parts and both extracted from a significant amount of copper. It was then decided to go to Tzilma again and try to establish where the smelting of copper, especially since, according to Jacob, to Griego-rovoy mountain can be arranged only after the production of the recession of water from the spring flood.
Moscow approved the decision and ordered his envoys to go to Tzilma. Decree was brought to the Urals January 25, 1620, another son of Jacob Litvinova – Moses. Apparently, in the capital of ore tsilmenskie seemed higher quality, and therefore was ordered to “where ore announced dig in many places and trades over it with great zeal”
Probably Jacob Litvinov was then already seriously ill or in general it is not, but an expedition led by Moses Tzilma Litvinov. May 29, 1620 he led Bertene Islands and the company (of course, and the Englishman Vatera) on old tsilmenskie generation. Sovereign envoys immediately widely deployed search works. Was punched about forty pits, some depth of 15 meters. Unfortunately, only two of them turned out to be ore. Those are the two beat-ditch ditches up to 4 meters and a length of 105 meters. But here, found the ore did not satisfy the master Vatera. He said that she was poor, put the plant unprofitable.
Moses Litvinov at this time led his search. He was armed with a “goldsmith” Dmitry Isaev and went on Tsilma further. And in a completely uninhabited places, two and a half days’ journey from the latter to the north of Gdańsk housing, Nicholas Slobodka, he found place rich ore. Although soon, August 20, 1620, Moscow commission was disbanded as Disappoint device smelting plant in the same place at the twenties, found Moses Litvinov, for the first time in Russia was adjusted copper smelting. More makeshift, but almost industrial scale. It is known that the construction of the production were sent blacksmiths and KIRPICHNIKOV of Solvichegodsk, and the organization of fishing withdrawn from the proceeds of the sale of wine in Orel and Solikamsk two hundred rubles from each. Money in those days very significant.
So, summarizing the activities of James Litvinov and his sons must gratefully celebrate the opening of many places Perm land deposits of copper sandstones, in particular the discovery on Grigorova mountain, where he built the first-born of Russian ferrous metallurgy – Pyskorsky copper smelter. But this plant is related to the activities already another great dynasty of Russian entrepreneurs – with family Tumasheva.