Yanushkevich and Decembrists

    Celebrated 185 years since
birthday of the Polish revolutionary Adolf
Yanushkevich Mikhailovich, who as
political exile in 1853-1856 he served in the
Nizhny Tagil.

    Active participant in the Polish
armed uprising 1830/31 years, he was
tsarist court sentenced to death
commuted to perpetual exile in Siberia.
Crime for him so cruel punishment
were the following circumstances.

    Lieutenant insurgent army
Yanushkevich was one of the leaders of the Legion
Lithuania, Volhynia and the Ukraine, and his brother Eustace
served as assistant chief of staff housing
commanded by General Samuel Ruzhitsky.
Polish journalist, a member of the events in 1830
Michael Tchaikovsky wrote that Eustace Yanushkevich
although he was not a professional soldier, but showed
outstanding abilities in the organization
offensive operations and personnel in rallying
the detachment.

    Yet these circumstances
were not major in the determination of the investigation
Commission guilt Adolf Mikhailovich. Being
student at Vilnius University, he was a
secret society, the defeated in 1823 by the tsarist
Senator NN Novoseltsev, was arrested, but
released due to the lack of direct evidence in
anti-government activities.

    In the twenties of the last
century, Vilnius and Warsaw University
considered hotbeds of freedom of ideas,
therefore their graduates imperial administration
treated very suspiciously. And disappeared
One important fact incited
scales in favor of the prosecution. Count Chernyshev
reported to the chief political investigation A. Kh
Benkendorf that Adolf Yanushkevich "one
same who also wrote from Warsaw to Vilnius
brother of Eustathius, telling him the
bold judgments about our army and extolling
praises rebels"

    Such people are not saying goodbye to
They are subject to severe measures of exposure. Not
possible that Yanushkevich when he was a student
University, is also suspected of having links with
Decembrists this version put forward
researcher activities exiles
Polish revolutionaries, associate professor KazSU Faina
I. Steklov. The materials for
Nizhny Tagil Museum-Reserve, citing
letter from Krakow, she pointed out that in Yanushkevich
early twenties "was connected to
students with Russian Decembrists". Is this true
it was now difficult to judge because the issue of
contact leaders of the Polish secret societies
Decembrists insufficiently studied deeply. To
Unfortunately, Faina Ivanovna a few years ago
prematurely passed away, without giving us
location of the Krakow letters
confirming its arguments about the connections with Yanushkevich
Russian revolutionaries.

    We know that in their plans
to transform Russia, the Decembrists paid
attention to the future of Poland. MS Lunin believed that
Russian and Poles to unite on
an equal footing. In his view, such a
"alloying" contribute even
natural conditions: "There are no mountains, no rivers, no
no geographic features that could
serve as boundaries for both states"
He argued that "both languages, deriving from
one root, understand with equal ease in
both countries, and it all seemed encourages both
people fraternize". Decembrists sought
broad social transformations in contact with
Poles, but those with more suspicious of
proposals of Russian friends. Conducted in
Kiev, Zhitomir and Warsaw negotiation between them
to anything constructive failed. Extreme
caution Poles, their distrust of
Russian general to have their own sad
famous long history. Can not be ignored
the fact that Russia was
involved in the partition of Poland and the deprivation of her
national independence. In "Russian
truth" PI Pestel spoke out against
granting Russia the right of peoples
self-determination, but he did in this regard
exclusion of Poland. Poles knew about it and were afraid
treachery on the part of the leaders of Russian
secret societies, and in contacts with them were
strictly conspiratorial.

    When the arrests began, a member of
Polish Patriotic Society Prince
Yablonovsky yet issued a Commission of Inquiry
many like-minded people to associate with the
Decembrists. Among them, the name is not Yanushkevich
mentioned, so the assumption of glazing on
his account remains at version.

    But in Siberia Adolf
M. met with exiled Decembrists
and was particularly friendly with Alexander Ivanovich
Odoyevsky, brilliantly educated man,
romantic poet who responded to the message
AS Pushkin’s famous poem "Strings
prophetic fiery sounds", The line is:
"The spark will kindle a flame" subsequently
served as an epigraph to the Leninist newspaper
"Iskra".

    Yanushkevich and Odoyevski
met in 1836 in Ishim, settled
together, find common ground in matters of literature,
history, politics and art. Friends all
free time were inseparable, read books and
magazines that were coming to them from Russia from relatives and
friends, discussing the events of the West,
remembered the days of anxious youth, played music
(Alexander played the harpsichord).

    Yanushkevich shared
impressions of his travels around the country
Western Europe, which is committed at the end of
twenties. He said that he visited the south
French city of Avignon and Vaucluse town, visited
at the grave of Laura. The beauty of this young woman
sang the first poet of the Italian Renaissance
Francesco Petrarca. Yanushkevich took there
cypress branch, and shared that with AI
Odoyevsky, who honored the memory of the great Italian
humanist. Odoyevski was so that
touched that he dedicated the poem
Yanushkevich, "share my branch
Cypress from the grave of Laura". This
romantic story is told in articles
Glazing and book "Laura branch"Author
E. Osetroff which somehow turned
cypress branch in oak but still with a large
acorn in the bargain.

    It should be noted that neither
Steklov nor Osetroff not provide estimates of the fact
visit Avignon and Vaucluse Yanushkevich and
keeping their branches, taken in these areas. However,
interest Adolf Mikhailovich to Vaucluse,
I think, there was not an accident. In this town
several years remained in seclusion and wrote his
famous "Kantsonere" Petrarch, who
famous song "My Italy" mourned by
about the fragmentation of their homeland, called for
cessation of civil strife and demanded "The world!
The world! The world!". Undoubtedly, Petrarch was deeply
cute Yanushkevich not only as a poet, and mo
as bright spokesman patriotic and
citizenship ideas.

    Perhaps it is in the Vaucluse
or the tomb of Laura vowed Yanushkevich
to be faithful to the ideas of freedom and cypress branch
became for him a symbol, responded dreams of
better future dismembered and enslaved
Poland. No wonder that he cherished it and
carried through all the years of exile! Can be
confident and strong feelings in those who
cemented his friendship with AI Odoyevsky. Do not be
these feelings if I could share with Yanushkevich
disgraced poet Decembrist the spiritual
value, which was for him
cypress branch?

    Also noteworthy is the
another poem Odoevskogo Dedication
"He also"Where are the following lines:

    You know them, who was so fond of,

    With whom I shared the hour of black?

    Do you know them? Like me, you pressed
them a hand

    And gave me amicably
conversation

    My soul is familiar with the old
then

    Itself raises the question,
who shook hands Yanushkevich with whom led "amicably
conversation"Transmitted to the author of the poetry
lines? We are talking about friends Odoevskogo
Decembrists who lived in Barrow, which
Yanushkevich met in the autumn of 1836, when he went
treated mud. It is known that at this time
Kurgan were in exile, Colonel
Tarutino Infantry Regiment MM Naryshkin,
the captain of the Azov Regiment IF Focht,
Lieutenant VN Liharev, captain
Lifeguards MA Nazimov, lieutenant of the Life Guards
Finland Regiment AE Rosen, Major Vjatskogo
Infantry Regiment NI Lorer Colonel AF
Bryggen. All of them are members of the Northern and Southern secret
societies.

    According to the memoirs of NI Lorer
and letters EP Naryshkina shows that in the mid-30s
Naryshkins’s house was the center of Kurgan
cultural life. In their "Scrapbook
Decembrist" AE Rosen reports that the Decembrists
gathered at the Naryshkin on Friday and discussed
policy issues, literature, history, reading
poems, shared memories of previous years. Here
also came and Polish exiles, participants
Uprising 1830/31 period. So, in an environment Yanushkevich
close to him in the spirit of the people that led
"amicably conversation", I think, at the same
Naryshkins.

    In 1837 Odoevskogo
ive moved the Caucasus and he died soon after, and Yanushkevich
moved to Omsk, where he was destined to write
wonderful book "Diaries and letters of
travel Kazakh steppes", Which became
the first reports on the life of the Kazakhs in the forties
of the XIX century.

    His activities in the Lower
Tagil reported in a large sketch FI Glazing
"Became a second home" ("Taghilsky
working" 30 and 31 March 1978). It should only
add that Yankushevich, took here
participate in the device factory library
tidied and hem in the famous album
Karamzins letter about the last days of life and
circumstances that caused the fatal fight
AS Pushkin, the same letters that were
found in our city in 1956. May be,
thanks to his caring attention they
preserved, served us an invaluable source
information about the great poet.

    Yanushkevich introduced into our
Soviet literature and science specific
contribution, therefore deserves a grateful memory.

S. GANZHA.

References: Newspaper "Taghilsky
working" from 12.07.1988.

The first librarian

    The poster, fortified over
the entrance to the reading room of the library of local history,
means that it opened in 1854.

    One of the stands,
telling about the history of the library, portraits
its founders: AN Karamzin, control
plants of Nizhny Tagil Mining District, in
prescription which flung open stacks
the door to the readers, and AN Demidov,
representative of the genus Ural mine owners.
Here is a portrait of the first librarian of Adolf
Yanushkevich political exiles,
arrived in Nizhny Tagil in the end of February 1853
year.

    Adolf Yanushkevich native
from a noble family, which was honored
national hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko,
maternal relatives. Higher
education he received, ending Vilensky
University (Vilnius). Student days
began his friendship with Adam Mickiewicz, the great
Polish poet.

    When November 29, 1830 in
Warsaw uprising broke out against the Russian
autocracy Yanushkevich felt obliged to fight
for the liberation of their homeland.

    In one of his battles
unit was broken and badly wounded Yanushkevich
was captured.

    The Court held in Kiev,
found him one "of the most dangerous and persistent
criminal empire"And therefore sentenced to
death by hanging. By
the final sentence of the death penalty was
replaced by permanent exile in Siberia,
at the same time deprived of noble Yanushkevich
rank, seized property.

    Since 1833, he is serving a link
in different parts of Siberia.

    In Nizhny Tagil Adolf
Yanushkevich came from Omsk.

    He was engaged in gardening,
led astronomical and meteorological
observations, collecting rock collection, herbarium
Plant for the museum. But the main thing in his thought
establishment of a library and attract readers.

    Library and an office for
read then placed on the second floor
a two-story wing (now the museum building)
to the left of the plant.
Basis of the fund were books sent by AN
Demidov, from the library Vyisky school books
and periodicals purchased
plant management.

    Yanushkevich received all
Receive literature, sign for it,
cataloging, was setting the volume on the shelves.
Library fund was 1215 volumes.

    According to "Charter
Library" only allowed to use it
serving the plant, to the priests,
clerks (chiefs of shops), other plants
Mining District. Readers, there were 435
man.

    It was the first Library
general use in Nizhny Tagil.

    In April 1856, after
the death of Nicholas I, an order was issued on
Yanushkevich release, he was allowed to
return to his home in Minsk province.

    June 29, 1856 Yanushkevich
leaves from Nizhny Tagil: In 1857, he was gone.

    To perpetuate the memory of
it younger brothers A. Yanushkevich its
means a small circulation, twice in 1861
Paris and in 1875 in Berlin published a two-volume
"Life of Adolf Yanushkevich". It, along with
biography includes diaries Yanushkevich led
in Siberia, and his letters to his family from the places of exile, and
also from Nizhny Tagil.

    In our local history
the library has a book Yanushkevich "Diaries
and letters from his travels in the Kazakh steppes",
published in Alma-Ata in 1966 and donated
translator and author of the preface F. glazing.

    Letters from the same Yanushkevich
Nizhny Tagil, of course, are of interest
for ethnographers, historians, and anyone interested in
past of his native land. Like to see funds
Library replenished at least copies
Translation from them.

    Over a hundred and thirty years after
death of the first librarian, much has changed in
Nizhny Tagil. There are more than 180 libraries
different systems and departments, the book fund
which is more than six million copies. In
which more than 330,000 readers. Created about
seven hundred offsite libraries acts
interlibrary loan. In addition, almost
every family has a home library of.

R. KULTIKOVA.

References: Newspaper "Taghilsky
working" from 15.07.1987.

Diplomatic Mission
Yanushkevich

    As with all of our country,
Kazakhstan prepares to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the Soviet
power. Its territory before the October
Revolution became part of the Russian Empire.
Joining lands and peoples
voluntary rather lengthy process with the first
third of the XVIII century to the late 60-ies of XIX.

    First Sergeant Minor hordes
and then some of the khans and sultans Middle Horde
adopted Russian citizenship. In the years 1822-1824
tsarist government abolished here
Khan’s power and introduced a new management system:
was adopted "Charter on the Siberian Kirghiz" (As
then called the population of Central Asia)
developed by MM Sperdnski. Any city
Ayaguz, Kokchetav, Karkaralinsk, Atbasar and others.

    In the early forties
the last century, the Kazakhs of the Great Horde, who lived on the
Semirechie territory, too, wished to enter into
the Russian state. It was a
kind of protest against the statements of the Sultan
Kenessary Gasimov, who sought to become one
feudal ruler of Kazakhstan.

    Receiving five tribes in
Russian subjects exercised
military-diplomatic mission,
headed by Major-General NF Vishnevsky
head of the Omsk border management
"Siberian Kirghiz". Its structure was
included Adolf Yanushkevich, who served at that time in
Office of the Vishnevsky.

    For participation in the Warsaw
uprising in 1830, Adolf Yanushkevich was exiled
the imperial government into permanent exile in
Siberia. Since 1841 he lives in Omsk, studies
local languages ​​on business travels to distant
trips to the Kazakh steppes, becoming
secretary of the committee "by ulozheniju project
Kyrgyz law".

    As a person, versatile
educated, familiar with the history and life
nomads, their manners and customs, not Yanushkevich
happened to be in the expedition. He entered
in diplomatic squad Ivashkevich and
performed there post historiographer, led
clerical work.

    Detachment Ivashkevicha
Complaints ahead for one of the nomads
townships on the ruler, the reconciliation of the warring
Sart and Kyrgyz in Ayaguz elections older
Sultan Ayaguz County Census of Population and
cattle in Central horde. But the main problem was
march to the border river Leps for adoption
Russian citizenship Semirechie.

    Since the departure from Omsk
in May and to return in October 1846
Yanushkevich keeps a diary, wrote detailed letters
family and friends. They trace the path
detachment, describes places pictures of life
nomads, detailing the background
expedition, its purpose and effect.

    From a letter to his mother: "More
a few minutes, and we’re on our way. Crew
post-horses, protection of the Cossacks all ready
I am going now into the heart of the Kazakh steppes, where else
untouched by any of the Pole".

    More than two weeks squad
stayed in Ayaguz, the center of one of the districts of Central
horde. Hence Yanushkevich sends letter other
from which it becomes very clear goal
expedition: "Uysun independent Kyrgyz
Great Horde, wandering between the rivers Leps and Or
Alatau mountains and lake. Balkhash, in the Seven Rivers, three
months ago (ie in March) was sent to Omsk
Embassy under the leadership of a Mauke.
This diplomat at the audience given to him on behalf of the
all births notified that the hottest and
constant desire of his countrymen is
entry into the citizenship of Russia and receipts from
her privileges, which has an average Horde. For
this end, he requested that the chief of the border
came in late May or early June at the coast
Aksu, the current in the two days’ journey from Lepsy where his
will expect the founders and elected by all
people to sign the last contract".

    For twenty-five years ago
Sultan wanted to bring Uysun in citizenship
Russia. For Leps sent a detachment of Cossacks
the command of Colonel Shubin to know the region,
population, material resources and to ensure
place, whether it is the desire of the people.
It turned out that not all nations sympathetic
look at the policy of the Sultan, so royal
court did not plunge.

    "Now the government –
continues expedition historian, gave
order to go to the border authorities
Congress at Aksu take full citizenship
Region".

    On June 10, Ayaguz arrived NF
Wisniewski.

    A day later Yanushkevich
According to friends, he wrote a treatise of peace between
Sarts and Kyrgyz, reconciled at last
after a long feud, and adds: "Dream
Do I have anything that I’m in another part of the world
will play the role of a diplomat of the people, I barely
known by name".

    From the diary: "At one o’clock we
depart from Aiaguz: Cossack squadrons and one gun
kokbektinskie Kyrgyz-led
Kiysyka-Tana, often armed with rifles,
aybaltami and bows. Our leader
(Conductor) is an old biy Beibit that
went to select a bathrobe (gift
Tsar Alexander I, RK) assigned Uysun
yet in 1814".

    Breaking the 342 mile to the river
Lepsy expedition to the evening of June 18 arrived in
border zone in the valley Oh-Dzhaylau, and broke
camp.

    Two weeks there was a preparation
both sides of the historical act. Here
shrink nomads are being exercised
military detachment of the expedition, and the group Ivashkevicha
conducts a census of population and livestock Middle Horde.

    After the arrival of Sultan Ali,
the most influential of the sultans Semirech’e
negotiations began.

    From the diary. Added July 3:
"Preparations to receive Ali. Victor
Master of Ceremonies. Deliver 800 horse Kyrgyz
Middle Horde and about 150 of the Great Horde. Their
put against each other, and in the middle on the carpet
– Mullah. Finally, Victor came to Ali. After
praying Kyrgyz Great Horde
swore allegiance to Russia.

    When the general ordered
read a patent on a military rank for Ali and
put on him a medal, and it was rattling pipes
made six shots from a gun.

    General congratulated the Kyrgyz
accession to Russia and wished to live among
a friendship, making one people".

    From the diary. Added July 4:

    "Today, it was concluded
agreement between the Kyrgyz and the Great Central
hordes to live together in peace and harmony.

    So the world! And all our
expedition ended without bloodshed!".

    July 5, 1846 was a review of
Kyrgyz troops, and at 4 o’clock in the day started
bayga holiday in honor of the historic event.

    Thousands filled the Kyrgyz
place of celebration. After the prayer began
universal treat. Then listen to improvisation
old bard Orynbaj. There were more than 300 competitions
horsemen, athletes struggle and interesting folk
competition.

    The next day the expedition
left the valley Oh-Dzhaylau. Soon she
divided into two groups. One headed by
General Vishnevsky went to Omsk, and the garrison
Ivashkevich few months running around the
Kazakh steppes, rewriting and cattle population
Middle Horde.

    In Omsk Adolf Yanushkevich
lived until February 1853, then came to
Nizhny Tagil, which went down in history as the first
first librarian shared libraries
Spaces.

    It took more than 140 years
the signing of the agreement on the voluntary
Semirechie accession to Russia. Unrecognizable
changed all of these places. Soviet Kazakhstan –
Republic, where the development of agriculture,
industry, culture. In the valley of the upper Lepsy,
in the place where the July 4, 1846 was
historical event, the village located
Lepsimsk.

    Diary entries and letters
Yanushkevich living document stories published in
Alma-Ata.

R. KULTIKOVA.

References: Newspaper "Taghilsky
working" from 24.10.1987.

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