Hello comrades-survivalist. As I promised, I continue to publish articles on the topic of «safety school.» And in the next topic we talk about wild animals in our country.
Of course I will not spread the catalog of all the inhabitants of our forests, but only give a few examples with some of their description.
Forests — the main type of vegetation Russia. They occupy a vast area (about 50% of the country), where you can meet a variety of wildlife. Here are a few species of forest animals that at a meeting with a man for him are different kinds of risk.
Elk — a huge animal. Body length 2.6-2.9 m, tail length of about 10 cm, height 1.9 m at the shoulder Weight very old moose sometimes reaches 500 kg; The average weight of 350-400 kg should be considered. The trunk is relatively short and thick, broad chest; on the nape something like hump, back straight, and the sacrum is omitted. Legs very tall, strong, all of equal length and terminate narrow straight, deeply dissected hooves interconnected tensile membrane. Hind hooves easily touch the ground, if the soil is soft. On a short strong neck sits a large elongated head, which in the eyes narrowed and ends long thick, swollen, as if in front of a stub, and a blunt snout. Muzzle this heavily disfigured nose and thick cartilage, highly elongated upper lip, which is very flexible, wrinkled and covered with hair. Small dull eyes deeply seated in their sockets, lacrimal fossa insignificant. Large, long, broad, but pointed ears are located on the back of the head, but mobile, which can be weighed down with each other. Adult moose horns are very large. Wide and flat, they are triangular spadeform. These horns directed laterally supported and short, thick, rounded fifes. The first fall of a young male seen at the site of horns hairy tubercle; next spring grows pipe; the second spring — second process about 30 cm long, which is no longer only in the following winter. Horn then branch out more and more
Wool elk long, thick and straight. It consists of a wavy, thin and brittle hair spine, between which is a short, thin undercoat; on top of the neck runs a large, very dense, middle split, mane, which partly extends to the neck and chest, and sometimes up to 20 cm Coat color uniformly reddish-brown; on the mane and sides of head, it goes into a dark shiny black and brown. From October to March lighter coat color. The female is not less than the male, but does not have horns, hooves its longer hind claw shorter and less protruded. In Russia, male moose is called «elk.»
Meets elk on the northern hemisphere mainly in the forest zone. This animal is common in Central Russia.
Moose live in forests, steppes in thickets along the rivers and lakes in the area are common in the area of tundra and birch
In winter elk prefers areas of mixed and coniferous forests. In that case, if the snow depth is 30 — 50 cm, animal sedentary. If the snow level rises to 70 cm, elk migrate to less snowy areas.
Do moose highly developed sense of smell and hearing, but very poor eyesight. For example, a person who is in a stationary state, the beast will not notice even from a distance of several tens of meters. Moose attack on people is rare, however, if a person closer to young calves, the adult animals in the same minute rush to a potential abuser their cubs. Moose instantly scatter and beat powerful human horns. Very often attacked by moose hunters who could injure the animal. Wounded elk becomes incredibly aggressive.
The ratio of print sizes forelegs moose different sex and age
and — adult male (15.5 * 12 cm); b — adult female (14 * 11cm); in — three male (12 * 11cm); g — year-old male (10.5 * 9cm); d — calf in July (6 * 5cm)
Measurements of trace moose spent some midland areas (Moscow, Tver, Novgorod, Tula, Kostroma), as well as traces of semi-beasts, whose age was known in Pechero-Ilych Reserve gave the following results. The largest bull elk trail, which met, was the size of 16 * 12.5 cm (without ponogotkov), the average adult bulls trace 15.8 * 12 cm, three-year bull left a trail of size 11.5 * 11 cm year-old — 10 8 * 9.8, fingerlings — 6 * 5, an adult large female — 14 * 11, and medium-sized pubescent female — 12 * 9 cm should be noted that in these soundings can only judge about the age of the animals, as their sizes can depend on the environmental conditions and the individual.
Stride length calmly walking moose, according to various authors, from 50 to 120 cm is most commonly takes steps 70-90 cm When trotting they lengthened to 150-180 cm in canter beast makes jumping to 3 m or more. Puts on a slow course back foot almost exactly in front of the imprint, so the trace track going elk prints dual majority, in one way or another covered.
In winter, when feeding solid food, litter elk resembles large acorns. Most researchers write that the numbers of elk nuts yellow-brown. And indeed, it is the way we usually see. But fresh litter has a different color, it is a dark olive green, but quickly turns brown in the air and turns brown. The same can be said about the litter other herbivores. Do bull elk droppings more rounded — (24-25) x (20-21) mm, cows and calves lengthened — 35 * 17, 34 * 13 mm. However, the definition of sex and age of the animal size and shape of individual nuts litter is not very reliable. In winter piles litter is from 21 to 170 nuts (an average of 90 pcs.).
Boar is a big, strong and quite capable of defending the animal reaches full 2 m total length or body length 1.8 m, 25 cm long tail, with 95 cm high above the sacrum; it weighs 150-200 kg. Gun for protection, tusks, large and sharp. Coat color varied.
Voice boar exactly the same as that of our domestic pig. When he goes quietly, the good-natured grunts; female, young boars and pigs squeal loudly. Adult boars even the most painful injuries make no sound. Their voice is rougher voice pigs and often turns into a vicious growl.
In areas inhabited by wild boars, of their presence, we soon learn the tracks. Boar — a large heavy animal prints and his feet are clearly visible not only in the snow, but more or less loose soil. In addition, these animals love to stay in low-lying areas along the coastal bush and cane crepes especially where the ground is soft. To feed, they can go pretty far away from dnevok. Particularly strong are removed singly living males, leaving 4-8 km. Pigs fed with broods closer to the holiday destinations in the 1-3.5 km. All this facilitates the detection of traces of animal.
The front and rear legs of the female boar
From traces of other hoofed footprints boar usually differ quite easily. Even on a slow course of the beast on the ground are not only hoofprints 2 middle fingers (3rd and 4th), but finger-side laterals. This feature should emphasize all boar hunters and researchers. However, most dry soil lateral toes may not stamped.
Different researchers measured boar tracks on his own. Some measure only prints the front hooves, others — total length, from the front edge to the rear edge of the print left side fingers. Researchers PG Oshmarin and DG Pikunov lead sizes hooves for boars of different ages: from 10-day-old piglets front hoof 2.2 * 2.1, rear — 1.8 * 1.6 cm, at the year-old gilt — respectively 5.5 and 5.2 * 4 * 4 cm and 3.5-year-old boar-9 * 7 and 8 * 6.2 cm
Imprint of the right front leg of the female wild boar on a drying
The male track is wider and significantly blunted in front. Boar rather short-legged, so it steps much shorter than deer and antelope. Step adult animal from 45 to 62 cm at a gallop moving beast jumps making jumps at 1.5-2 m addition to footprints, it leaves a lot of other traces of their activities.
Next boar is extremely similar to the trace of the domestic pig, only a relatively longer and sharper it. It also outlines their (especially the old boar) reminds deer trail, with the difference that the rear adventitious fingers boars following expenses in the form of grouse Kositsy most widely trace imprinted with hooves without gaps and that the distance between the tracks shorter. Next boar (male) from the track pigs (females), characterized in that the boar adventitious fingers are more and more stupid and single hoof on each foot, whereas the pigs hooves significantly different values from one another. And besides, what gives boar trail razlaty more than a pig, because he puts his feet on the move more in the direction. Same size and depth of the footprints can reliably judge the age of the animal.
Litter boar varies greatly in size and diameter, depending on the size of the beast itself. Usually it is quite thick, dark, almost black color. Has an elongated shape, consisting of curved folded, squeezed each other fragments of up to 7 cm in diameter
Despite the fact that the boar seems clumsy, his movements quick. Bodies of poorly developed that compensates for the perfect smell and hearing. Boar behavior differs caution, but when injured, being close to the cubs, the animal is dangerous: it can fangs cause serious injury. Boar can attack the hunter. Particularly ferocious wild boar become if they startle during «lunch» or if a person approaches the female with cubs. Male strikes man with his tusks, female, knocking hunter scores his forelegs.
If boar runs per person, should move sharply before the animals, having missed, it is unlikely to return for another attack. The most dangerous adult animals that live alone.
In Russian boar distributed in the European part (except the north-eastern regions of the tundra and taiga), in the Caucasus, Southern Siberia, in the Tien Shan. Boar — the only member of the family pig in Russia.
Brown bear — it is a heavy beast, so where it is kept, it should be found quite easily. The body length of the animal from 130-150 cm to 240-250 cm, weight 56-80 kg from 250-300 kg, some reach 640 kg. Height up to 1.3 m long fur, thick, of a light yellow-brown to brown-black. Clear footprints bears left and on forest roads and on soft soil along the banks of rivers and other water bodies.
The brown bear is a pretty serious predator, dangerous to humans. One paw animal is able to knock down an adult and break bones. If the bear found in the forest man, it is unlikely to attack first, if the person will not show aggression (waving a stick or hands clapping and so on). but if you scare or injure an animal, the chances of rescue remains extremely small. Wounded Bear able in seconds to overtake the fleeing hunter and break it into pieces. Powerful claws and strong legs allow the bear to easily cope with the man.
Distributed brown bear in the forest belt of our country from the western border to the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk from tundra to forest. It also is found in the Caucasus, the Caucasus, the Pamirs and Tien Shan. Usual habitat of the brown bear — vast coniferous or mixed forests, peat bogs, and garyami berry fields.
He pacer consequently when walking and running at the same time it becomes for both right, then both left legs so hard all the time rolls over from side to side. When embarking on an accelerated running very fast gallop, easily catching up man. Uphill runs even faster than on level ground, helped by the length of its hind legs. From the mountain he can only slow down, because otherwise perekuvyrknulsya easily be over his head. In addition, he swims well and artfully climbs; however, in old age, when it becomes very greasy and heavy, avoid climbing trees, especially if their trunk is smooth and has no branches. Enormous strength and strong claws facilitate climbing bear: he can climb even on very steep slopes rocks. Of the five senses it is best developed senses of smell and hearing; sight, by contrast, is quite poor. Taste seems to be very well developed
Prints forepaws this predator is easily distinguished from the traces of the hind legs. Foreleg leaves noticeable prints crumbs all 5 fingers, followed by a kidney-shaped imprint visible metacarpal crumb narrower on the inside and with a wider outer edge. Emphasis is placed on deep grooves ahead fingerprints left long, slightly curved claws.
Stopohodyasch bear, and his back foot leaves its mark across the sole. Five-toed hind paw footprint footprint resembles a bare foot sarapus.
Imprint forelimb brown bear
Imprint of the hind paw of the brown bear
To imagine the size of the beast on their trail left, is sufficient to measure the width of the metacarpal crumb on the print front paws. At yearling cubs, this width varies from 5 to 6.5 cm, bears, born last year — from 8 to 10, in adult moth — from 11 to 18 (from bears in central Russia — no wider than 14 cm) The mother animals — from 14 to 17, in particularly large specimens — up to 20 cm
At the same age, males are usually larger than females. Track length rear legs most large males can reach 31 cm in walking bear noticeably toed, putting a paw inside the toe and «heel» outside. On a slow move prints front and hind legs are located near or rear paw print is printed over the front — it turns out the so-called indoor track. Often with a leisurely movement beast leaves trace track with nedokrytymi traces and then we see that the hind paws prints in varying degrees superimposed behind the front prints. With fast motion prints hind paw prints are ahead of the front — it is covered with a trace. Hence, by location prints can determine the velocity of the beast, whether he was going at a slow pace or in a hurry.
Bear leaves a lot of those or other traces of their activities and feeding. Spring, rising from the den, he frequents the anthills. Mining insects, severely damages its upper part. Autumn, varnish fruits pears, apples, cherry plum, rowan berries and other fruit, bear bends and breaks a lot of fruitful branches. Walnuts, hazel fruit or pine nuts he eats together with shell.
While the bear plant foods in abundance, he is content with it. But once you try the animal food is a predator in every sense of the word. He looks for his prey and dogs. Cattle, as they say, is trying to tire the prosecution, especially when he is grazing on the high mountains, driving him into the abyss, then carefully himself down after him, and eats his fill. Success increases his courage. Bear in the Urals is considered the worst enemy of horses
Wolf is like a big, long-legged, slender dog with a tail hanging down and not cocked. Upon closer examination of the wolf are the hallmarks of the following: thin body, belly tightened, thin legs, the tail is covered with long hair and hanging up the heels. Muzzle seems elongated and pointed; wide forehead descends steeply down, eyes positioned obliquely ears are always erect. Wolf fur, both in color and length of hair is quite varied, depending on the climate of the place where he lives. Usually roan coat color or gray-yellow with a touch of black hair; on the lower part of the body color becomes lighter and this sometimes whitish-gray. Summer color animal with a reddish tint, and winter — with yellowish. In the Nordic countries dominated by white shade, and in the south — black. Forehead wolf gray-white, grayish-yellow face with some black lips whitish, yellowish cheeks, sometimes with obscure black stripes, thick undercoat yellowish gray
Wolf distributed throughout Russia, except for some Arctic archipelagoes, the Commander and the Kuril Islands. No wolves now and Sakhalin, disappeared there in the beginning of XX. To date, they have become rare in many other areas, especially in the European part of the country.
In Moscow in the second half of XX century. traces of wolves can be seen not closer to 80 km from the capital, although on the outskirts of the area, for example in Lukhovitsky, Taldomskaya Uvarov and p-tries, their broods continue to appear.
Wolf can live in a variety of landscapes, preferring open spaces — tundra, sparse forests, steppes and semi-deserts. Avoids dense forests, as typical of the boreal forest deep snow prevented these predators chase prey.
Almost universally, the main role in the diet of wolves play ungulates. Wolves are not insured by any mischievous little musk deer or elk huge and mighty. To the north of these predators are particularly affected wild and domestic reindeer in the woods — roe deer, deer and moose, steppes — saiga antelope and others. In the mountains, wolves attack mountain goats and sheep, and in densely populated areas where ungulates little they start to attack livestock.
Among the victims of the wolves were observed almost all living animals have, including different predators, stoats, ferrets, martens, badgers, foxes, foxes, jackals, raccoon dogs, wild cats (among them was even lynx), wolverine occasionally. Sometimes a pack of wolves dare to attack even the brown bear, the truth, and the victims are often among the attackers.
Wolf paw prints in their similarity with traces of dogs differ from them in that the side on his fingers brushed back so that the front edge of their prints barely gets to the rear edge of the middle fingers prints. Besides, as they say hunters, wolf paw holding a wad and rastopyrivat fingers like a dog. Because of this, the wolf trail looks more «lean.» Fingertips and plantar crumbs wolves more convex, making the wolf paw print seems more relief. Prints of the hind legs slightly smaller and narrower tracks front.
Imprint left paw old male wolf.
To distinguish from the wolf’s trail dog, just look at the tracks of the next beast. During quiet during his paws wolf prints form a nearly straight line, and in dogs sinuous line. Traces wolves are large enough, so easy to see that every wolf paw prints have their own characteristics.
As can be seen traces of wolves and some sex differences. We trace the male animals of the same age are usually larger and wider than the female, the length of the front paw print wolf male greater than its width is 1.3, and in females 1.5 times. Winter wolf floor easily identify and left urine stains on the snow. Wolves urinate as well as the dog: male sprinkles a towering thing — stacked stone, and the female crouches and leaves compact puddle.
Paw prints by wolves can be found and the approximate age of the animal to leave a trace. This is clearly seen from a medium-sized bearing surface feet central Russian wolves of different sexes and different age groups (data taken from the book AN Formozov «Satellite Tracker» with some modifications). Print size paws wolves cm in old individuals — males 10.5 * 8.0 * 6.2 9.2 females; at pereyarkov male 9.3 * 7.2 * 5.8 8.8 females; in profit — male 8.5 * 6.7, 8.2 * 5.5 females. However, most large males central Russian wolf may have much larger footprints indicated AN Formozov. And if the paw print of an adult male wolf that lives in the middle lane, paw print is a large German Shepherd, the next largest species, reaching a length of 12 cm, to be compared with traces of dogs most large breeds: St. Bernard, Caucasian Shepherd or a Great Dane.
In addition to the paw print, animal leaves grooves in the snow. They are formed when an animal carries a paw over the snow, to cross and make a new trail. These grooves are clearly visible behind the new track called «potaskom» or «languishing.» Pulling out of the snow paw beast usually trace its ramshackle front edge, forming a characteristic «vytask» or «dragged».
The deeper and loose snow, the longer, and consequently wider and potask vytask. When the shallow layer of snow and in those cases, when the animal is wary or sneaks potask vytask and almost absent.
Wolves, like other animals, under different circumstances, can move different gaits — step trot or go for a quick run. Step is the slowest pace. They sated wolves usually go for a day’s rest. Footprints with a less smooth than in the trot, and the length is shorter steps themselves, about 25 cm
Next adult wolf trot. Hind feet hit the front track is not very accurate
Trot — the main way of getting around the wolf. In this gait hind legs just fall into prints forepaws. Double covered prints arranged in a flat line, almost like a fox, the length of single steps animals were moving at a trot, in adult males range from 70 to 100, while pereyarkov — about 60 cm Disturbed wolf goes unnoticed by enemy fast trot and at a pace per night can be done up to 70 km. With the risk of an animal goes into a gallop, making jumps to 150 cm
In pursuit of prey close risen wolf rushes quarry, making two-meter races and developing on chernotropu speed of 50-60 km / h Hind legs puts far forward, placing them at an angle to each other in front of the front paws prints, and they, too, are placed oblique pairs, but with an opposite rear fingerprints slope. Traces of wolves running harder to distinguish from the trace large dogs, since the location of the footprints and other similar animals.
The body length is not less than 1 m, and can reach 1.3 m, tail length 15 — 20 cm, height at withers 75 cm male bobcats can reach a weight of 30 and even 45 kg. Animal has an extremely strong, compact constitution, strong legs, powerful legs, resembling a tiger or leopard paws; all this is at first glance indicates the great strength lynx. Ears are rather long, pointed and terminate kistochkoobraznym thick tuft of black, spiky hair length of 4 cm thick on the upper lip is a few rows of hard and long whiskers. Thick soft fur clothes and body lengthened on the face in the form of a beard that hangs two ends on either side of the head, and with ear tassels gives «face» trot peculiar appearance. Colour of fur on top of reddish-gray, mixed with whitish; on the head, neck, back and sides densely covered with fur red-brown or gray-brown spots. Lower side of the body, the inner side of the legs, front of the neck, lips and circles around the eyes white. Muzzle ginger, ear inside covered with white hair on the outside — black and brown. Tail evenly over the entire length and equally thick hair seated; end of it, occupying almost half the length, black. Summer fur is shorter and more reddish in winter long and rather light gray. Female, apparently differs from the male usually more reddish color and less clear spots; newborn cubs whitish. Eyes bronze-yellow color with a round pupil.
Modern distribution area of the predator begins with the Carpathians; hence it extends to the east and to the north, Russia and Scandinavia. Here she meets up to the northern border of dense forests. Lynx inhabits the whole of Eastern Siberia, where the terrain is hilly and wooded.
Trot better than other wild cats have adapted to live in a harsh climate of the North with large frosts and deep snow, so she inhabits almost the entire territory of Russia, except for the extreme northern areas and treeless steppe areas in the south. Lynx biology studied well enough, traces of this cat too well known, and are described repeatedly plotted.
At dusk becomes brisk trot. But embarking on a search for prey at night, often stops and listens like a cat, which need to go through the open, her apparent unsafe. To the extent possible lynx keeps his former ways. Confused traces with traces another beast can unless the person is not aware of the animal; trotting track is great, but does not correspond to its disproportionate paws: he is more than a trace of the wolf, and without rounded indentation claws. Step is relatively short.
Front (left) and rear paws trot
Do bobcats large round footprints. The forefoot of approximately equal length and width. Hind paw imprint slightly narrower. Print sizes range from 5.5 to 8 cm, so that the traces of this cat is difficult to confuse with traces of other cat species. They are much larger footprints forest, steppe and Amur cats Man’ula and much smaller traces of tiger and leopard. Theoretically they can be confused only with traces of snow leopard da jungle cat. However, these species may meet together only in very limited areas.
In winter, the surface is densely covered with lynx paws, so fingertips and plantar crumbs missing on less clear and the whole print is like a halo. Create the impression imprinted on the snow long hair surrounding the sole.
Traces of the right and left prints are not located flat chain, such as foxes, wolves and even some small cats, and a snake. Driven mainly trot step, placing the hind paw print in front. At the same time never comes dragged along on a branch. Stride length 23-40 cm through the forest is not right, and strongly winds often stops lying down or sitting on the snow
Clear imprints of the right pair of paws trotting on a dusty road
Wild animals prefer not to deal with a man instinct warns them against this. But if you still met the inhabitants of the forest — do not be alarmed! Even predators usually attack humans unless wounded or protecting cubs. Therefore, do not move and do not attack themselves: let the animal go quietly. And with his aggressive behavior, use as fire protection (lighted branch, torch, etc.) or noise — shouting louder knock on wood stick or metal object … Remember that the animal can not turn your back and run away. In extreme cases, slowly recede, keeping an eye on him. If a wolf or wild boar, can climb a tree, or (if you’re on the coast) go into the water.
Elk, buffalo, bison, wild boar and other large predatory animals can not show aggression towards humans. Attack tactics in these animals is to disperse a crash victim. They are good runners, and if there is no secure place, do not try to escape from them in flight, when they are streamed to you. Stay still and wait for them to approach. At the last moment pull back behind a tree or jump to the side. Because of the large massive body animal sweep past. He needs time to unfold. You will have the chance to climb a tree or somewhere to hide. Herbivore chasing you, not for satisfying hunger, and therefore will not seek care. Most likely, it will forget about you as soon as only lose sight of. Do not tease the animals do not approach close, do not touch their children.
The material in this article was compiled from various sources and definitively edited.
More on the topic «School Safety»: