survival lessons of life safety

Not so difficult to lose orientation in the midst of piles of dead trees in the forest thicket overgrown with thick bushes where the unaccustomed eye it all seems the same greenish chaos and difficult to distinguish remarkable terrain folds and dissimilarity of the situation. Go astray ever and a brand-new, and experienced tinicum.

In such cases, the person starts over in his mind the various methods of orienteering. He reminds how about States of light build their homes of ants, and where more is resin on the bark, and from which side the trees covered with thick moss. But, hand on heart, I have to say that even very poor knowledge of all these romantic perceive will not change the compass.

With this amazing device most of us first met at school. Constructed in the XIX century the Russian military topographer Peter Adrianova, he survived with virtually no configuration. Once it is made from brass, now her replacement came in plastic. Such a compass can be found at virtually any sporting goods store. Despite a decent age and some old-fashioned, compass Adrianova still used by many travelers.

On the limb of the compass -120 divisions, in other words one division corresponds to three degrees. Long stroke, covered with a luminous composition, is the origin of the divisions. Every fifteen degrees on the limb caused triangle and on it is written the number of degrees from zero. In addition, there are three glow-in-the haze point, bukovka under them, the proper side of the horizon (In, s, 3). The sighting ring has two plastic tabs — eye and fly under which the inner side of the ring under the glass placed two triangular ledge, covered with phosphor. The Northern end of the arrow is also covered with shining in the darkness of the composition. Arrow rests on the needle and spinning on it.

In order to reduce the friction of the arrow about the needle and increase the accuracy of the compass in the center of the arrow built a small stone-lens with a small hollow needle. Arrow fixed clip — springy metal plate, bent in half. If you can bring it out through the slit in the casing, the ends of the plates are biased, the arrow is released — the compass is ready for operation. When the clamp is pushed inward of the compass, its ends will press down arrow to the glass.

But the compass Adrianova predominated modern liquid compasses. To work with them even easier and more convenient. The arrow that compass is in face tube with a special liquid (anti-static liquid), allowing the needle of the compass to be installed in the North within a few seconds (in some models the least seconds).

At the current time on the Russian market presents compasses companies such as the Swedish Silva, Finnish Suunto and Otechestvennaya Moscompass. Their technical properties similar, but prices firm Moscompass even lower.

Arrow in the modern compass is made of plastic, and in its center is placed a powerful magnet. This is done in order to reduce the installation time of the arrow and to improve the accuracy of the compass. The Northern end of the arrow is usually shaded a reddish color, the South can be white, green, black. Fluorescent coating gives the opportunity to work with a compass in the black night. The limb has a more precise graduation scale (up to 2 degrees)than the compass Adrianova. On the day of the transparent tubes are applied guide strips, which help to Orient a map and accurately set the azimuth.

Manufacturers, mostly based on the needs of orienteering, has concentrated its efforts on reducing installation time arrow in the direction of North (talking about toliko seconds) and its measured position even on the run, which is crucial in sports, but not so fundamentally in the journey. Because most of the models compasses is intended in the main for orienteering and has a very lightweight design with a very limited set of functions.

A couple of years ago in the midst of the Russian travelers was very popular compass East German production of «Sports-4». This is one of the most versatile compasses sold in the Russian Federation. The base of this compass was fitted with a ruler for scale 1:15000, millimeter ruler, magnifier for growth in three and a half times, dual illuminated label to label directions, lines for orienteering compass. On the day of the tubes of the compass were also provided by the guide strip and dual illuminated stroke to mark the direction to the North. At the moment Sport-4″ in our stores is not for sale, but choosing a compass for the journey, you need to find something similar.

Of those compasses that are sometimes used in expeditions, you need to mention geological and artillery.

Geological compass is designed primarily to determine the angles and direction of falling rocks. With all this compass is necessary to focus not on an object and itself. This is easier to do if you swap the East and West limb of the compass. Specifically is how a limb geological compass — it should be understood, defining the sides of the horizon. It was convenient to navigate the terrain, compass inserted speculum with a special thread. In addition, geological compass is provided with a protractor to determine the angle of incidence of the layers and the latch for the arrows, which secures them in position. One of the sides of the compass can serve as a line — it provides centimeter and millimeter division. The building has level — vial with drops of water, which allows you to use the device on weight or on uneven terrain with confidence knowing that the compass is placed parallel to the earth’s surface and the measurements correct.

Artillery compass has a value dividing 100 thousandths and calibrated clockwise. It is arranged in such a way that its sighting device remains motionless, while the scale may spin. This makes it possible, without changing the position of the compass, operatively cooperating zero division of the limb with the North end of a magnetic needle, not knocking it. The device is provided with a hinged lid with mirror, allowing the sight to the subject to control the position of the compass and take the reading on the scale.

Methods of determining magnetic azimuth using different compasses have certain features.

So, compass Adrianova and similar compasses raise the released magnetic arrow to a height of 10-12 cm below eye level, zero stroke compass is brought under its Northern end, then the other hand, not knocking the arrow location and housing, the cover is rotated with the sighting line in the direction of the subject. Clear aligners these areas reach the repeated translation of the eyes with the visor strip on the object and back. With all of this, it is not necessary to raise the compass up to eye level, as in this case, its orientation strays and the possibility of error increases. To measure the magnetic azimuth on the compass Adrianova is possible with an accuracy of two to three degrees.

The accuracy of the magnetic azimuth of the compass who mirrored lid. In this case the compass is tilted at 45 degrees mirror rises to the level of the eyes; on the sighting of the strip passing through the center of the compass and the slot at the base of the mirror cover, the device is directed at the target. Then zero stroke of the compass aligns with the Northern end of the arrow, and remove the reference angle on the limb against the target band at the base of the cover.

Mirror cover allows you to control the orientation of the compass.

To find the direction indicated by the azimuth, all operations are performed in reverse order.

So, compass Adrianova Orient and approximately determine the direction on the ground; then, turning in the same direction and holding the compass at the level of 10-12 cm below eye level, just focus it and vise on the ground mounted magnetic azimuth. In order not to lose, in strips sight celebrate some excellent conspicuous landmark.

Compass with mirror, keep on eye level and lovara-receive, looking in the mirror, until such time as the Northern end of the arrow will not appear at the zero reference of the limb. Then on strips of sight notice the reference point, the direction of which will be the direction of the established on the limb of the magnetic azimuth.

The limb of some imported from other countries compasses not broken 360°, and 32 nautical Rumba. In such compasses main points are indicated next way — North — North, South — South (S), East — OST (0), West is West (W). Quarter Rumba correspond to combinations of 2 letters, for example, the North-West — North-West (NW) or South-East-Zuid-Oost (SO). Promienie Rumba between the main and quarter are indicated by 3 marks — East-South-East — Oost-Zuid-Oost (0S0).

Whatever design or compass, it is necessary to protect against shocks (in particular liquid, the body of which has the shape of the plate and therefore quite fragile). It is better not to wear the compass in the external pockets or on his hand, where it is easy to break and tied the strap to wear on the neck, removing the inner pocket or shirt. Dangerous for compass proximity to large metal objects — saws, axes, knives.

The main part of at least some of the compass magnetic needle. For a rough orientation on the terrain rather have her one. Because in all cases, when the compass is broken, broken his body and scale, it is necessary to keep the arrow.
The easiest way to hang the arrow on any untwisted thread and wait when it will be established along the North-South. Can the arrow onto the needle, a dry fish bone, a sharp sliver. But to take advantage of such a device is not very comfortable, it is difficult to determine the degree count, so the needle will react to the smallest breath of wind.

Because it is better from a piece of wood cut case of a makeshift compass where to insert the eye down the needle and to impose on it the arrow. A piece of polyethylene film stretched over the body, will play the role of protective glass. With all of this arrow should be placed so that the film didn’t let her off the needle and at the same time not hindering the movement of the needle — in other words specifically because it is expected in a real compass. The locking clip can be stretched over the cellophane thread and put under it a piece of bark, resting in the middle of the arrow.

In those cases, when the compass has suffered so much that even the arrow cannot be used or when he completely lost, you can try to find the light, nominativ iron needle, pin or razor blade.
Of course, it would be nice to magnetize all of the needles or pins before leaving the house, to compare them with the compass and mark with paint the Northern end. But such exceptional foresight occurs very rarely. So it’s necessary to magnetize needles when will claim the situation. They rather stick for 30-40 minutes to the magnet, which is in the dynamics of the receiver or headphones. You can magnetize a needle, wrap the wire around it, the ends of which needs to be connected to the terminals of batteries or battery. With all of this, the more coils wound on the needle, the better. If the wire is stripped of insulation, the needle need to wrap any insulating material. In order to magnetize a needle, will need more than 10 minutes. The end of the needle, which was negative battery terminals will correspond to the North end of the compass arrow.

Iron needle is magnetized and in this case, if some time rubbing it in one direction about silk fabric and a razor blade, in addition to all the aforementioned methods, you can try to magnetize osmotically rubbing the palm of his hand. But both of these methods yielded a very small magnetization, which is enough fast and magnetized in a similar way the subject is able to indicate the direction to the North, only being suspended by a thread.

The magnetized needle needs a little polarcat about hair or fingers and neatly put on the surface of the water. Usually, small sewing needle does not sink and uniformly deployed in the direction North-South. More powerful needle should be inserted into a piece of bark, foam, you can skip through a straw, put on a little sheet of paper or plants.

Making such «water» compass, you must keep in mind that the water tank should be made of nonmagnetic materials. In such cases all indications arrows will be quite distorted.

For such improvised compass is better to use any round capacity. In this case, it becomes possible to arrange the scale and accurately guided in-degree count. For this purpose it is necessary to take a string, wrap it around the tank so that the thread was exactly equal to the circumference. Folded thread, you can find the middle and divide a circle exactly into four parts, folded again be divided into eight parts, etc..

Victor Kremer

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