ORDER TO OVERCOME THE SWAMP AND HOW TO COME OUT

Overcoming the swamp should be aware that the swamp can pass:

1. If it is covered with thick grass interspersed with sedge (in the dry season you can even pass);

2. If the swamp is visible clump of pines;

3. If the swamp is covered by a clump of moss and a thick layer (up to 30 cm) tow — old, decomposed moss (withstands the load of the machine on tracks).

Swamp go harder:

1. If it is in the middle of the moss caught frequent pools of stagnant water (need to get alone mossy stripes and ridges overgrown with low bushes);

2. If the bog grows cotton-grass — grass, which remain after flowering, like dandelions, head down;

3. If a swamp overgrown with thick bushes, willow, alder, spruce or birch.

Swamp pass almost impossible:

1. If it is covered with reeds;

2. If floats through the swamp grass cover.

Check the thickness of the peat layer, its density and hardness of the soil using iron pin a diameter of 20 mm with notches through 10 see

To overcome the wide marshy spaces can be made from the funds under the hand protoscope and other devices. The permeability of the solid peat bogs can be found elementary methods.

In the off-season (especially in autumn) Hiking trails often pass through the swamp, fettered by frost.

If the ice keeps the man with the knapsack, then to go on it quite simply. But from time to time, early snow delays the freezing bogs. It is covered by a narrow icy crust, in this case it is unsafe. Security measures in the path through the swamp in the offseason are the same as in summer.

It should be understood that the frozen swamp is simply impossible, but from time to time leenee only the surface layer and in such a bog walk unsafe. Rapidly and perfectly frozen grass bogs, ice on them forms a continuous solid crust. Bad ledeneyut swamps, covered with a clump of willows and alder. Margins of swamps ledeneyut worse. Tussock bogs freeze unevenly. Mossy bogs with a layer of tow ledeneyut slower than grass; ice on them just cracks and falls. Swamp, overgrown with bushes, better than passable.

Motion by impassable swamp should be a chain with an interval of 4-5 m, in the tracks, if the path is not in the floating vegetation. Step to put this gently, without jerks and sudden movements.

The safer way to lay over bumps, around bushes and tree trunks. The danger of falling into this case is unimportant, because under a layer of silt lies usually hard ground.

When walking over bumps leg should be placed in the middle, all the feet and gradually move the body without jumps, keeping the balance.

For balance it is necessary to rely on a pole. Harder to go on higher knolls. In this case, for the insurance and the seat slightly forward placed the pole on which relies going and gradually turn transfers the weight of a body from one foot to the other.

A big mistake is jumping from tussock to tussock. Because of their instability when the jump disappears balance, which leads to a fall and injury.

The most dangerous in the swamp overgrown ponds, the surface of which is covered with bright green grass. This marsh. It is almost impassable. Because wetlands are recommended to be around. If necessity (deep and complex crawl) the group is still required to go through the swamp, then you should make all security measures.

Before stepping on the site of a quagmire, it is necessary to outline the path of motion. Floating vegetation can withstand a man with a knapsack, but varies under your feet going. For security purposes, to move in this area of the swamp one by one with an interval of 5-7 m

To avoid tearing quagmire participants should not follow in the tracks. Met on the way lots of water must be avoided is "window" — gap quagmire in either layer, where it is very narrow. Hollow pit with swamp water should also be avoided.

For insurance you need to constantly keep ready the pole in a horizontal position.

Fallen into the quagmire need to rapidly pull up the pole to for themselves and to lie on his chest. If he is unable to rise, then it should not create excessive traffic, even more so not to break the floating vegetation. In this position, not to allow sudden and convulsive movements and lose composure.

Help a fallen should be rapidly, hassle-free and at the same time carefully. You must first sagacity naiblezhayshie from him the location of the poles and branches. Then carefully get close to him, to help remove the pack and get out.

Hollows depth up to 50 cm and more than best place on the poles, which are alternately stacked in the direction of motion.

The stacking sequence of poles is that as they are released, they are passed forward. The way it is, paving gat, the group moves forward.

To walk on slippery Gati carefully, focusing on the ability to pole, side step or with spread feet on the outside.

If the exploration has established that the area of the swamp is under the water layer of hard soil, you can move forward in the tracks for the lead. Movement in any case should be done gradually, insurance sixth of needlona.

When moving through the swamp, you must constantly watch for the direction, be noted landmarks, to put "landmarks", tying him small pieces of cloth or bandage. Marking the paths may also be required when returning back, in case of impossibility of coming forward.

To pass the swamp you in shoes and clothes. However, the pants should be filled so that they do not cling and not interfere with walking. Equipment, products and clothes should be placed in a plastic bag in the middle of the pack.

Before to overcome the swamp, you have the ability to find out more about him: where the wetlands, crawl, where dry places (Islands) in case of sudden stops, etc.

HOW TO GET OUT OF THE SWAMP?

To occur this may or swampy areas, or after heavy rains, in the forest or other open space. This can occur after a severe drought when surface water evaporates, leaving only the underground, which are sometimes hidden under a layer of silt and inconspicuously, such swamps are very unsafe, because their depth can be very large and to get out of it is actually impossible.

The ability to be pulled into the swamp increases in summer and autumn, in winter, such is not actually happening, because leenee surface layer, so that it becomes very strong and go under it very problematic. Therefore, specifically in the summer and autumn periods need to be as careful and look at his feet, finding himself in such areas.

Usually, swampy areas occupy a huge place, which has its islets, it is possible to cross this area, but from time to time tough-looking layer of the earth is a true quagmire. To suck in the swamp can instantly either evenly.

If the swamp is very profound, that person sucks at one time to get out of such swamps unrealistic, if there would not be the person who would be able to help. If sucks evenly, in other words a chance without the help of others to get out of the abyss. But it will need the knowledge of certain rules.

The main rule that you want to know, is not to make any sudden movements, once in the swamp.

If in the swamp sucks slowly, all have a chance to escape. In the 1-x, once in a swampy area, you need to get a stick, better, that it was broad and strong, in other words a real bar. This stick will probably be your salvation, because it is necessary to choose laborious, and not to take the 1st comes to hand knot.

If you’re in the swamp, slipped off the bumps, then you most likely will rapidly suck, because of the inertia of you will continue its movement, helping the quagmire, because to fall better on the tummy or back, so you will have to suck slower.

If you are not very rapidly go under water and you have a stick, it should be neat to put in front of him, well, if naiblezhayshie strongholds not more than two feet, then the end of the stick fall to the ground and will be easier for you to climb out. But even if the stick is quite down in the swamp, you need to get into it and try to move its own center of mass on the stick, the way you get some semblance of the bridge and you can survive on land or wait for help without risking just to leave in the mud.

If you don’t have a fully anything such, that would be for you lever, try to take a horizontal position. Make it accurate as possible, careful moving of its own center of mass from the legs to the torso, if you succeed to do this, the weight of your body will decrease significantly and you will finish tightening in the swamp. In this position you will be able to wait for reinforcements.

But being in the swamp, under any circumstances, not to make any sudden movements, waving my arms and try to pull your feet, you will suck the abyss. Being in such a situation is not even loudly screaming, calling for help, and especially to swing free extremities.

If the top of your body still nascoste, it is necessary to take off a jacket or cloak and throw it to the surface of the swamp, it is also possible to escape, he will not give the ability of the marsh to suck you.

If in the swamp sucks very rapidly, it can only assist a third-party person, he should throw a rope or a stick man caught in the swamp, would be able to survive on a hard surface.

From time to time in order to remove the 1st person from the swamp, you want more than 3 people on the land, because the force of suction from the swamp is very high.

You should also keep in mind, if a person is pulled out of the swamp, its under no circumstances be let go in order to make a break, little is released people will instantly go into the swamp, getting extra energy from the land when the repulsion.

Methods for determining the permeability of solid peat bogs
Nikita TEMNOZOR

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