By field, and on the accuracy of inferior steel shot lead shot
The hunting literature from time to time publish articles about the possible adoption of a law to restrict or even on the inadmissibility of the use of lead shot in hunting. I can say nothing about the environment in Russia, but on the external ballistics steel shot should say.
However, before considering the advantages and disadvantages of steel shot, you need to resolve the question of the possibility of its placement in the sleeve. This is due to the fact that the density of lead by 1.45 times greater than the density of steel. Therefore, the same weight of steel shells and lead shot cartridges in place can not be the same length. If we discard the shotgun chambered 65 mm long, of which there are very few, as well as guns chambered 89 mm, which today is almost not at all, the guns remain with the chamber 70 and 76 mm. So I made some experiments and calculations on placement of steel shot in 76 mm sleeve.
For the experiment were taken spherical beads with a diameter of 4.5 mm with a copper coating on the civilian sporting guns. Such balls correspond to the number of lead shot 00. The mass of the ball is equal to 0.36 g, and the weight of a lead pellet 00 is equal to 0.53 g
Sleeve 12 gauge length of 76 mm has an inner diameter of 19 mm and a depth of 69 mm. In such a liner charge of gunpowder «Falcon» weight 2.3 g takes 13 mm, felt wad – 16 mm, twist and shot wad – 8 mm. Consequently, there are 32 mm fraction. These 32 mm can enter up to 108 total mass of pellets 00 in ’39, but of steel balls with a diameter of 4.5 mm can enter no more than 68 pieces total weight of 24.5 g, as when firing steel shot is necessary to use containers. And rolling Dultsev sleeve «asterisk» also reduces the weight of the shell of steel shot. However, when using powders with higher density and strength of the mass of the projectile will be a few more, but not so much. As you can see, and the sleeve length of 76 mm can not provide a full-fledged round steel shot. And only in the sleeve of 89 mm would be entered up to 96 steel balls weighing about ’35
And now for the external ballistics. Suppose that we have chosen is the best game lead shot № 7. The weight of one pellet is equal to 0.094 of this fraction with an initial speed of 375 m / s will have a speed of 200 m / s at a distance of 32 m. The weight of the steel pellet №7 equal to 0.065 g, and to equalize their kinetic energy, speed, steel pellets number 7 should be equal to 240 m / s. But weight is 0,067 №8 lead pellet, in which the speed of 240 m / s is a distance of 20 m. Given that the cross-section fractions №7 ahead №8 fractions, the steel roll will have a velocity of 240 m / s at a distance, less than 20 meters. Hence, in this case by firing the steel shot distance is reduced by more than 1.6 times in comparison with lead pellets.
If you use steel shot larger size, for example, the number 3 instead of lead No. 5, then because of the smaller number of pellets in the charge, the efficiency of shooting down more than half.
As you can see, and the sharpness and accuracy of steel shot inferior lead shot.
As for the hardness of steel shot, it does allow increased an order of magnitude and barrel pressure and the muzzle velocity of a fraction, and, consequently, the kinetic energy of the projectile, but to realize this advantage in modern guns, where the pressure in the bore exceeds 1000 bar, it is impossible . Therefore, the successful use of steel shot may be only at distances not exceeding 20–25 m.
Some believe that all steel pellet in the projectile will have the same speed, but because the shot will not be a sheaf extended in length, making it difficult to aim. But this is overkill: do not cross the goal sheaf shot and shot crosses the goal. Given that the speed at the time of the meeting of the fraction in order to more than 10 times greater than the target speed, the result of the shot is the same as if the target were stationary.
The question of the transition from lead shot to steel is not so simple. I fear that few of our legislators are fully this problem, and in pursuit of the best to get what we get always.
Igor Arbuzov, St. Petersburg December 5, 2011 at 00:00