What is ecology

On the ecology recently not only speaks lazy

What is ecologyPhoto: Vitaliy Koshkin

Everything from small to large, from the farmer to the deputy of the State Duma have their own opinion on the matter. And in a hunting environment considerations about the environment so much that can be difficult to understand. Sometimes these arguments are logical and correct, but in most cases amateurishly naive and incorrect.

There is an anecdote that in Russia it is very difficult to be a teacher and a doctor, because everyone knows how to teach and how to treat. In this anecdote already safe to add ecologist profession. Today, environmental issues openly speculating in their articles the journalists in their campaign speeches, candidates and deputies at various levels. And the common people, no, no, and will screw in a conversation some phrase about the environment, showing it as it is “in the subject”That he knows how to solve in one fell swoop all the environmental problems if not in the country in a particular region accurately. I’ve always jar statements of some figures of regional scale along the following lines: “Yes, we have a bad environment”. “Due to the bad environment, cases of cancer”. “We have a very good environment, so efforts should be made to attract holidaymakers”… And so on and so forth. To this I always ask the same question: “What is ecology?” And here they either fall into a stupor and realize that talk about the issues, which does not understand, or (funny) begin to invent on the fly determining ecology.

So what is the environment? To be brief, ecology — is a science about the relationship of living organisms and their communities with each other and with the environment. Therefore, the environment can be good or bad. Ecological relationships — this is a very delicate mechanism, constantly changing over time. Minor seemed to changes in habitat can have devastating consequences for some species of plants and animals living in the biotope and, as a consequence, the change of relations and food chains.

In Pokhvistnevsky District Samara Region in the flood plain of the river Great Kinel many oxbow lakes, there is a very long time. Over time, they become shallow, overgrown with reeds and sedges, gradually disappear from these fish. Local communities vehemently calls for the protection of lakes, carrying out of activities to stop them drying up and water logging, and no clue what the transformation of the lake into a swamp-old women, and then in the swamp water meadow — it is quite normal ecological processes to interfere in the course of which is to destroy the natural evolution going for centuries.

I can not give you another example of ecological ignorance of local government. Near the village is located Staropohvistnevo largest lake, bayou penny, which is surrounded on the north side Kinelsky ravines height 100–150 meters. Vegetation Kinelsky ravines is unique, and, moreover, is the only place in the area where meets steppe viper. The whole area is declared a natural monument of local importance. Well, just a monument, it must be protected. The easiest way to protect — enclose fence territory and prohibit grazing farm animals. As a result of the termination of the regular trampling mountain steppes became subjected to the process olugoveniya disappeared numerous colony of ground squirrels, steppe eagles, nests were not uncommon in the area, was gone and steppe viper. So seemingly innocent administrative and economic solution was destroyed the fragile ecological balance of holistic habitat. And the guard was in fact nothing — unique ecosystem disappeared.

What is ecology

Photo: Vitaliy Koshkin

The ecological balance is fragile, it is possible to work on, but gently and delicately. For example, the settlement and release in new habitats in the existing population in the European Plains hare caught in the East Siberian and West Siberian Plain, no good no avail. However, Belyakov on the European part of Russia and was the taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus), which previously was not there. On the territory of Siberia, over the millennia between parasite and host has developed a sustainable ecological balance, and in all probability, on the population of the parasite in his native natural enemies and influence climate. In their absence, in a mild climate, in the European part of Russia for some 20 years, the number of ticks has become catastrophically high. Does a tick on mammal populations in forest habitats of European Russia, including animal — Objects of hunting? Certainly affected. Undoubtedly, the number of young is shrinking due to the attack of ticks. Furthermore, they are carriers of a whole bunch of infectious diseases.

In the 70s of the last century in the Central Black Earth and Volga regions of the Soviet Union there were no wild boar. Hunting management efforts have been made by its dispersal to new habitats. On new “homes” This kind of plastic quickly multiplied and began its expansion in the north of Russia, even at the border areas, where the average annual snow cover exceeds a height of 50 cm (although previously thought and that is the ultimate snow cover for wild boar). But these assumptions were wrong. In the Central European part of Russia boar became the dominant species. Destruction of wild boars anthills violate the ecological balance in the forests. The reduction of red wood ant (Formica rufa L.), whose ant loves to arrange maturation boar, necessarily affect the increase in the number of other insects — forest pests. And when you consider the fact that red wood ants are natural enemies of ticks, it becomes clear why ticks are found in the forest in such large numbers. In addition, wild boar kills laying birds nesting on the ground, including grouse, wood grouse, woodcock. In those lands, where there was a wild boar, it has been a sharp decline in the number of upland game. Suffer from this omnivorous animal and masonry waterbirds.

Some researchers observed facts devouring wild boars young rabbits — as the hare and the hare. There are cases of attacks on young bulls of large ungulates — elk, deer and even European bison in the Bialowieza Forest.

Wild boar is interesting as an object of hunting. Even in bad years when observed epidemic significantly reduce the number of the animal because of its fertility and its ductility population recovered in a short time. The number of animals that suffer constant pressure from the wild boar, in the years of its low numbers due to epidemics or epizootics not have time to recover to limit the size of their populations, since their recovery requires a much longer period of time than the boar. Thus, the sharp fluctuations in the number of wild boar in different years, if they do occur, does not affect the increase in the number and upland game birds.

Are there any positive effects on forest habitats of the wild boar, where he lives? Sure, there is. One of the major influences — This massive destruction of the centers of the May beetle and its larvae. In the spring of places just plowed boars and beetle larvae and pupae are almost completely eaten. At this time in the litter of the wild boar abound elytra of a beetle. But even this positive factor does not cover the damage, which has a wild boar on the ecological links in the habitats in which it lives.

Twenty years of the triumphant march of the wild boar hunting grounds for the European part of Russia, so even with the help of a large man, of course, entail irreparable changes in the environmental situation of habitats in which wild boar inhabit. While the boar will live in our woods, dream of upland game hunting and hare not worth it.

Vladimir Derevyanov24 May 2011 at 15:00

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