In February 2008, I was invited as an expert on the regional exhibition of hunting dogs in a position to hold where it was stated that it is carried out according to the Rules of exhibitions of hunting dogs in the USSR in 1985
Photo: Mikhail Semin
Knowing that livestock represented there are problems with the teeth formula, I went to the exhibition with a gloomy mood.
As is known, a full set of teeth of the dog has 42 teeth including 12 incisors, 4 canines, 16 premolars (P) and 10 indigenous or molars (M). The main function of incisors predators, which include dogs, – This gripping, biting and scraping the meat off the bones. Canines are needed to defense, mining and withholding food. With the premolars and molars crushed dog bone, chew meat and tendons.
The absence of certain teeth of predators leads to dysfunction of the digestive system.
Hereditary diseases and defects of the teeth and dentition in dogs most often seen in the cases described below:
– (insufficient number of teeth, toothless anodontia)
– hypodontia (absence of teeth, especially premolars)
– oligodontiya (inordinate lack of teeth) may be affected as milk and permanent, and only the permanent teeth.
It is believed that such animals suitable for breeding (except for the absence of P1), such as hereditary defects may be associated with a lack of bone calcification membrane.
Inheritance occurs in an autosomal recessive, and some rocks on the dominant or X-chromosome type.
Enamel defects are inherited autosomal recessive, with varying degrees of severity. Typically, dental enamel defects are the result of the impact of a damaging factor during the development of enamel or dentin of permanent teeth, ie between 4 and 6 months of life. To include hereditary diseases and deviations of individual teeth to their correct location in the dentition.
In most countries, dogs with hereditary defects listed above are excluded from breeding. In Russia, in the introduction to the standards of breeds of hunting dogs on February 26, 1985 with respect to the dental system it says that by eliminating faults (the dog gets a grade higher «satisfactorily») relate:
– All departures from scissor bite;
– the presence of extra incisors, lack of one or more incisors or they are broken, preventing the definition of the bite;
– absence of at least one pair of molars (molars M1 or M2).
It is the absence of defects of three or four pairs of pseudo-molars teeth (premolars), and the disadvantages – small, rare or karieznye teeth, the absence of one or two pairs of pseudo-molars teeth (premolars).
And now let’s look at these rules in detail. The instructions for the method, technique and expertise of the organization of hunting dogs at shows and broods held in the territory of the USSR on October 13, 1971 said that vices – it dramatically noticeable deviations, reduce or prevent the tribal use. disadvantages – This subtle deviations, expressed to a lesser degree, do not interfere with the use of dog breeding.
By this instruction dog, in which no 8 premolars (19% teeth!), Including it may be four, and four P3 P4 may receive exhibition evaluation «OK»And in the absence of 4 teeth, say two and two P4 P3 or P4 four (tricrotic teeth with bifurcated roots) assessment «very good»! At the same time in different manuals on dog breeding is written that the lack of teeth – hereditary recessive trait, passed down steadily, particularly in inbreeding. Then the question arises why it’s only flaw, not a vice?
Until recently, writes Vladimir Gusev Gusev, the examination of the dogs paid attention only to the correct bite, the development and strength of teeth, without specifying the presence of all their kit. Accordingly, we do not pay attention to the incompleteness of the teeth in the selection of pairs for breeding. As a result, some breeds of dogs had many lacking from one to eight premolars. Therefore, in our time, the examination of the dogs check not only bite, but the completeness of the dental system.
On the National Dog Show in Tambov (2002) was approved by the addition of a dental formula. It stated that the shortcomings is the absence of first premolars zaklykovyh not affect the assessment of the exterior, and the lack of P2 or P3, but no more than one effect on the spot in the ring. By defects include the absence of two premolars among the P2 and P3 (reduction assessment by one point). The absence of one P4 – not higher «OK», But the absence of two carnivorous teeth P4, absence of canines or at least one molar number of M1 and M2 relate to a disqualifying fault. It would be reasonable to assume that these are temporary, but very necessary complement to the standard will be legalized, but things are there. And it turns out that the dog that does not have a P4 at the National Show in Tambov gets for conformation assessment «OK»And at the regional exhibition, conducted according to the rules in 1985 – «excellent».
Involuntarily the question arises: why the expert who conducted the examination for both shows, enter into the evaluation of pedigree «excellent»Then «OK»? You can understand and confusion owners: why is the All-Russia exhibition of his dog had just evaluation «excellent»And I got here «OK» due to the absence of P4?
Such a dual situation has led to the fact that in the Samara region began to appear litters West Siberian huskies who They lacked not only the second, third and fourth premolars, and molars but. After all, the parents of these dogs, with estimate «excellent» and «very good» diplomas and field, are the main breeding material, and it is impossible to refuse a planned mating, even due to lack 4–6 teeth.
Who ensures that the puppies from these litters are all molars? Otherwise, the dog goes into the category of utilitarian. And imagine if such an outcome a person who buys a dog for a lot of money? Who will explain to the owner that he has acquired by graduates and plembrak vysokoeksterernyh manufacturers.
On the National Dog Show in Tver (2007) in the ring vyzhletsov Russian hound the older age group, which was the main expert of the All-Russia category Sipeykin VP, has been carefully examined teeth and bite of all the dogs in the ring. As it turned out? According to Viktor: «… I did not expect that at the All-Russian exhibition will be as many dogs with disabilities bite and dental formula. For some dog owners was unusual that the experts not only inspect the bite, but also count the number of teeth.
If it detects the lack or excess of premolars, the owners genuinely surprised this fact». Abnormalities in the number and arrangement of the teeth were observed in 14 vyzhletsov (23%), namely bite – 1 unit., Relations bite the dog after 6 years – 3 units., The lack of one premolar – 2 pcs., The lack of 2 premolars – 2 pcs., An extra premolar – 5 units., Incomplete closure of jaws – 1 unit. And if the first 4 cases abnormalities comprising administering to the standards of breeds of hunting dogs, approved by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR from 26.02.1985 year, extra premolars and incomplete closing of the jaws were not discussed.
A similar picture in the ring vyzhlovok older age group and noted VB Popov, teeth defects were observed in 22% of individuals, almost as much and vyzhletsov.
Even worse in the West Siberian huskies breed. On the 66th of the Samara regional exhibition of hunting dogs in the ring bitches younger age group 44% of the individuals had a variation in the dental formula. 27% presented huskies shortage of two to five premolars, including 3 and 4.
When analyzing the pedigrees of these dogs, an expert of the All-Russia category VI Chetverik report noted that they all originate from either the n / h Urals VPKOS 1843/97 or 2834/00 VPKOS 11 Urals or Ural 1U 846-99 / 14 Ivanov VS, or common ancestry n / h Kid VPKOS 8818 / PPE Chursina AI And what could be expected from producers who were absent from 5 to 7 premolars!
Based on the foregoing inadvertently begs the question: do we need a hunting dog teeth? And if so, the most urgent steps needed to amend the introduction to the standards of breeds of hunting dogs, because from the moment of their approval after more than 25 years!
Olga Bogodyazh expert canine-1 category, PhD December 19, 2013 at 00:00