Residents of villages located on the shores of the White Sea, as well as along the banks of rivers flowing into it — Mezen and the Coulomb with their tributaries, — each year are sent to morskie seal hunting that produce during the winter four times and called: zimnestoronskim, kedovskim, konushinskim and nernitskim (Ustye).
On fishery is 1,500, and each industrialist kills about 10 extra animals, the each year, with one kedovskom fisheries, destroyed useless 15 000 seals.
These names originated from the names of the banks, with which the industrialists descend on their fishing in the sea.
Go there in boats industrialists special device. Each boat usually put seven people: six pokrutchikov, ie Workers receiving from owner grub, shoes, clothing; in a word, the entire contents and a certain share of the spoils — and the owner, which is more often the case, and the helmsman. Duty helmsman hardest: White sea teeming shoals, and need a lot of experience and skills to explore the fairway; besides the pilot to shoot animals in the local — «the skin.» Shoot seals rifles ancient device, with flint locks. Needless to say that such a system is extremely gun inconvenient, since the powder on the shelves syreet, so that there are constant misfires.
The gun, however, is not always inevitably necessary: even zimnestoronskom, konushinskom nernitskom and fisheries are often the opportunity to do without guns. This is at a time when ice accumulates in large masses. If industrialists see that a block of ice, which are seals washed many more ice floes so that animals are like on the big island and do not have access to the sea, that is, They can not quickly dive into the water — they form a chain around this group of ice floes on which the vast number of seals on all sides at once run over on the ice floe and beat animals hooks. It often happens that the animals, seeing imminent death, going close in one pile, climb on each other, a strong pressure to break through the ice floe and saves thus escape under water. In this case, the industrialists are sent to search for other seals haul out on the ice more robust. It is impossible not to wonder how weak these huge animals: one, even small impacts hook on the nose (in Mezenskaya «on myrke»), enough to kill a seal on the spot.
When you have to shoot the seals on the fishery zimnestoronskom, each shooter puts on a white dress and trying to approach the animal shot at a distance «from the wind.» Shoot certainly require a label that that the blow was fatal; otherwise a wounded animal on the ice begins to run and scream than to wander out of place and other animals. The latter is, however, rare, as manufacturers, due to their white clothes suited to the animals at a distance of fifteen paces and closer, so that there is almost no opportunity to miss. The skins of dead animals to remove pokrutchiki right there on the ice, stitch them together and three drag to the boat.
When kedovskom fishing gun is not used. Industrialists are living in huts on the cape and Kedovskom not descend into the sea as long as they hear the cry of the seals. Boats that are used in the fishery is less than in the other three fields and thus easier, but also contain a seven.
In past years kedovsky fishing was profitable of all, first of all, because it requires less expenditure of money (cost per person does not exceed 3-4 rubles, whereas in other fisheries, it extends up to 11-12 rubles.); secondly — at the cost of time and, third, the skins of seals (in the local — haroviny) removed immediately with bacon, therefore, are valued more. It is true that when zimnestoronskom fishery, producing at the same time kedovskim, the skins are removed, too, with fat, but there is, as mentioned above, each industrialist equipment costs about 12 rubles.
At the same time, fishing is much dobychlivost kedovskogo fail. As a scientist, so still and all unlearned practices industrialists, noted that the seals around Candlemas (February 2) of the Arctic Ocean are directed to the White Sea and then, near the Solovetsky Islands — in the Dvina Bay, choosing a sturdier ice spawn children. From there they were, the children have again brings back over the ocean to the North, so that about 26? February 28 of nails to the most Kedovskomu cape. But, according to my observation, for four years, as seals, inexplicably, from the Arctic Ocean to throw pass in the Dvina Bay much earlier, therefore, carries them back to the ice as before. In this circumstance the industrialists did not pay attention, and, as we know, in recent years began to return home empty-handed. This — the first reason nedobychlivosti fishing. The second is that the industrialists at kedovskom fishery saw a huge influx of seals, beat them needlessly. Set the teeth, as much as possible, all seals, adult males, females, children (pups, and hohlush zelentsov), manufacturers believe that their indispensable duty to kill a few extra heads, which leaves in place and, therefore, does not bring them any benefit. This beating is done due to the fact that Mezentsev rooted conviction that the spring of overly stuffed sea animals washed ashore, and that, consequently, they are someone will take advantage of. But it is patently absurd. Ice floes on which seals are held in the spring, and even earlier, are carried into the Arctic Ocean, where dead animals disappear without a trace. If we take into account that the fishery is 1,500 and that every industrialist, kills about 10 extra animals, then annually, with one kedovskom fisheries, destroyed 15,000 seals useless, not to mention the litter! This figure is far from true, as indeed industrialists consume much more, I took a minimum. Add to this the number of seals being killed aimlessly, yet the number of them who are crushed in the other three fields, we get a huge number. In this evil would do well to pay attention to our administration. Industrialists, adhering stupid prejudices and true to tradition, hardly ever aware of all the foolishness they adopted the system that led to the final destruction of expensive animal.
Villagers and villages located along the river Mezen, fishing for sea animals only by Koynasskuyu town living is hereinafter — hunting for forest game.
And indeed the government should intervene kedovskogo fishing. Firstly, it would be necessary to establish rules for determining certain period to send to the assembly point for the start of production of fishing, and instruct monitor compliance with the requirements of police power. Second, apply the law that determines the number of animals on each boat, just as is the case on hunting seals in the Caspian Sea; if appointed industrialists recognized norm is uncomfortable, then they give themselves assign it by mutual agreement and appoint elected from among themselves, one for each bursa (ie ten boats) which would be monitored to ensure that the rules are respected.
So far the government has paid attention only to the fishing nernitsky producing in Mezen Bay. When the young seals will grow so that will be able to have to go into the water, then the seals (ringed seal, harp seal (seal harp), strings or Seryakov and uterus utelgi) from the cold Arctic Ocean pass into Mezen Bay as a place of quiet, convenient for the race. Transition is usually about the Annunciation (March 25), when the sun, and here in the North begins to warm quite friendly. It is located on the ice, seals sleep soundly. This dream enjoy industrialists and easily beat the seals.
In previous years, manufacturers with up to 800 people, starting with the assembly points, Nernitskogo coast and the Cape «Abramov» went right into Mezen Bay, and then each boat riding on the freedom of the Mezen Bay and the adjacent part of the White Sea, catching seals and shared between themselves prey. This method of catch are extremely predation; In addition, some manufacturers have sought to capture prey cash in their hands, did not allow the other, causing permanent sea fight; then the farm industrialists successfully coming up and the teeth on plenty of seals, not at all I do not comply with the interests of other cooperatives, but rather scare away the animals, cooked, for example, the dish, while it is known that the smoke caused by the wind, frightening beasts: and smelling the smoke, they immediately go to the ice water and depart from the place where lay 20 miles or more in the White Sea, towards the Northern Ocean. Therefore, the industrialists, who were engaged in the search of the coastline, had to chase animals in the sea, and the chances of a successful approach to the frightened beasts becomes questionable.
In view of these circumstances, in 1874 the government has been established for the northern seamen rule about choosing commercial chiefs, one from each of the ten boats to comply with the order and regularity in the division of the spoils between the farm. All this, of course, very well, however, under the conditions that are furnished nernitsky fishing at the moment, and industrialists, and seals on any easier. The fact that industrialists nernitskogo release sent to fish around April 1; Meanwhile, long before them — two — noydennie peasants go to the beach «Sneakers» and the island Morzhevets and then beat seals for themselves; allowed it because the fishing is done in the «open the White Sea», ie outside nernitskih crafts, and not subject to any rules. But even before the industrialists and kedovskih morzhovskih go beat the seals from Cape Konushin, residents of the villages scattered along the rivers Kanin Peninsula, and the city burghers Mezen. Here they live up to the spring of St. Nicholas — May 9 — and also ply the high seas. These three industrial point falls exactly on the path when approaching seals in the Gulf of Mezen. If blowing north-easterly wind, the animals will inevitably fall for industrialists konushinskih — if blowing north-easterly wind, then the animals, if they pass by konushinskih industrialists, all fall on the same industrialists, living on the island Morzhovets. Then, continuing his way to the Mezen Gulf, they are sure to run into industrialists who came down with gym shoes.
Konushinsky fishing is done in the same way as everyone else. In earlier years, when the inhabitants of coastal waters of the White Sea had more or less the state, the so-called early konushinsky lets go fishing for several boats, but now abandoned this fishery to the end of nedobychlivosti. In the city of Mezen there are many individuals who first sent one kedovsky Beach 3-4 boats, ie 20? 28 pokrutchikov, now completely impoverished, and to send pokrutchika bear to the Jew as a pledge last coat.
B. Varaksin2 April 2014 at 00:00