Part 3: Reef residents.
At a time when the very developed tourism, intending to distant seas are not out of place to know a little about marine life, as well as what can come from these dangers.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus). A large, aggressive fish up to 4,5 m. Large items have a weight up to 350 kg, usually 150-200 kg. The upper jaw in the form of xiphoid appendage. Pelvic fins are absent. In warm weather, stick to the surface of the water. In bad weather go into the depths. They live in tropical and subtropical waters of the oceans, it goes to higher latitudes. There are numerous cases of attacks swordfish people, boats and even large vessels.
Moray eels. There are about 20 species of moray eels, most of which lives in tropical and subtropical seas. However, some species live in the temperate zone, for example, the European moray. If moray eels do not annoy, it is not dangerous, but if you annoy her, she is able to cause painful lacerations, and clinging to the body, they behave like a bulldog and does not unclench jaws as long as they remain alive. The biggest moray eels reach 3 meters in length and 30 cm in diameter. Meat many poisonous moray eels, so before you cook it, ask about his suitability for food from local experts. It is found that the meat is toxic at the following types of moray eels:
Belopyatnistaya (Gymnothorax javanicus Bleeker), Zelenokaemchataya (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus Ruppell), freckled (Gymnothorax pictus Ahl), Korotkorylaya (Gymnothorax javanicus Bleeker), Net (Gymnothorax undulatus Lacepede). The range of these species approximately the same — Indo-Pacific region (from Polynesia and Japan to Africa, including the Red Sea).
Catfish (Family Anarhichadidae) — ferocious, aggressive fish that have sharp, strong teeth. The bite of the fish can cause significant injury, so the fishermen are trying not to take catfish in hand, and kill it before the blows of the stick, paddle or other heavy objects.
Reef (and coastal) of fish, meat can contain poison, causing poisoning. These include more than 300 species. Some fish are usually considered edible, can cause sudden poisoning at some time or seasonal period. Such situations are difficult to predict, especially to prevent them. It is likely that «virulence» Fish appear to use it in certain foods such as poisonous plants mansinelly. Below are the names of the fish, causing the disease, and their places of the greatest habitat: Aleta — temperate regions of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans; Albula — He lives in warm seas; Australian snappers — Australian marine waters; Variola — tropical Indian and Pacific oceans; Garrupa Argus — tropical Indian and Pacific oceans; Spotted Grouper — Indian, Pacific Ocean; Grouper venomous western tropical Atlantic; Wrasse Gaymarda — tropical Indian and Pacific oceans; Wrasse crafty — tropical Indo-Pacific region; Nematocera goatfish — Indo-Pacific region (from Polynesia to East Africa); Yellow trevally — tropical Atlantic; Korotkorylaya parrotfish — tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans; Korotkousaya goatfish — from Polynesia to the waters of Indonesia; Mottled triggerfish — tropical and subtropical seas; Red snapper — Indian, Pacific tropics; Red sea bream — The Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the eastern part of the Atlantic; Kuzovik Cattle — tropical Pacific; Kuzovik triangle — tropical western Atlantic; Levovangan — Indo-Pacific region (from Polynesia to Africa); Mata Hari — from Polynesia to East Africa; Mila or Bohar — tropical Indo-Pacific region, including the Red Sea; Redfin, Porgy — Mediterranean, Eastern Atlantic; Skipjack tuna — in the tropical belt of the seas and oceans; Snappers — Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and the waters of Indonesia to Polynesia; Fish-surgeon — The tropical Pacific Ocean, including the waters of Indonesia; Sinepolosaty grouper — from the Marshall Islands to the west to the islands of Sumatra and Java; Blue Snapper — tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans; Blue parrotfish — Florida, Western Central Atlantic; Herring-tuporylka — Tropical Pacific Ocean, East China, South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal; Soldier fish — Indo-Pacific (from Africa to Polynesia); Tambak — the same place where the soldiers and fish; Pacific trevally — tropical Pacific, Japan; Truncated grouper — Pacific (near Indonesia, the Philippines); Black triggerfish — tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans, the East China and Yellow Sea; Japanese anchovy — off the coast of Korea, Japan, Taiwan and China.
Fish toad (family Batrachoididae). Small bottom fish living in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. They have a broad flattened head, large mouth. Some species can live in the rivers. As a rule, they live in burrows, under rocks, hide in the weeds or bury themselves in the ground. Have mottled coloring of the skin, the ability to change to a lighter or darker. There are 5 main types of fish, frogs.
Possess poisonous spines usually 4: 2 on the back and one on each gill cover. The dorsal spines are very thin and sharp, slightly curved, have a cavity for the passage of the poison. The venom is produced in a gland located at the base of each spike. Branchial spike is a hollow, thin bones, capable of injecting venom into the victim through the puncture. The pain from the injection occurs immediately and pronounced, distributed in the side of the lesion. Recorded poison toad fish a little, but we know that death it causes.
Fish lira, European species (Callionymus lyra Linnaeus). It has a flattened head. On operculum strong poisonous thorn. The dorsal fin is high. Living at depth and in shallow water. It lives off the coast of Europe (Eastern Atlantic) and in the Mediterranean Sea. Supported fish lyre-injections can be very dangerous and very painful tolerated.
Fish surgeons (belong to the family Acanthuridae). This warm-water fish, characterized in that the base of the caudal fin, the side has a sharp, reminiscent of the lancet movable spike. In the excited state of the surgeon holds the spike vertically relative to the body. Quick hit the tail of large fish-surgeon can cause a person a great wound. There are several species of fish-surgeons: Surgeon Bleeckere (Acanthurus bleekeri Gunther). It is found in Indo— Pacific to the Marshall Islands. Dvulantsetny (Naso lituratus Bloch et Schneider). Distributed in the Red Sea, and in the Indo-Pacific to Polynesia. Yellowfin (Acanthurus xanthopterus Cuvier et Valenciennes). Found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans (tropical zone).
Cygan (family Siganidae). Small-sized fish living near the reefs and rocks. Body laterally compressed, high. There are types: Motley Cygan (Siganus lineatus Valenciennes) — Coral Sea and north to the Philippines and Micronesia. Dark Cygan (Siganus lineatus Valenciennes) lives in the Indo-Pacific region, including the Red Sea and the waters of Polynesia. Cygan mask (Siganus puellus Schlegel) lives in the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, a region of the Marshall Islands to Solomon.
Toxic apparatus rabbitfish fish consists of four ventral, dorsal 13 and 7 anal spikes which are associated with venom glands. For the man an injection very painful. Symptoms are the same as when injections Scorpaenidae fish. Local residents considered whitefish fish delicacy.
Mackerel (Scombridae). This family unit okuneoobraznyh include fish such as mackerel, bonito, tuna. In some cases, dangerous meat of these fish can be particularly dangerous mackerel caught in tropical waters. It is best to eat only fresh fish, as contained in the meat gistadin by bacteria turns into zaurin causing illness such as allergies. Symptoms of poisoning are allergic in nature. Sometimes poisoned meat is determined by the taste — acute or burning. Symptoms include headache, thirst, dry mouth, heart palpitations, nausea, vomiting, stomach pains occur within a few minutes after eating the fish. Rarely, fatal poisoning. Symptoms can persist for days, but with proper treatment relief occurs within 8-12 hours.
Stingrays. Superorder elasmobranch fish. The body is flattened, disk-or diamond-shaped. The length from a few centimeters up to 5-7 meters. Skin covered with spikes or naked. 5 gill slits, they are located on the ventral side of the body. 5 groups, 14 families, 50 genera and 350 species. The risk to humans are: European stingray or common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca Linnaeus). It lives in the Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and Black Seas. In the Pacific, a very close look. California bracken (Myliobatis californicus Gill). He lives near the west coast of the United States. Round stingray (Urolophus halleri Cooper). Distributed near the Pacific coast of Central America. Spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari Euphrasen). He lives in tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans, the Red Sea. Rhombic stingray (Dasyatis dipterurus Jordan et Gilbert). The Pacific coast of Central America. Scat Butterfly (Gymnura marmorata Cooper). It is found off the coast of California and Mexico’s Pacific coast. South American freshwater stingray (Potamotrygon motoro Muller et Henle). It lives in some rivers in Brazil, including the Amazon.
Hvostokolov reach a length of 1 m, weigh up to 5-6 kg. The skin is smooth. At the tail has a sharp spike-like hook. Thrust of the spike dangerous to the person that is very painful tolerated: who sustained an injury begins to writhe in pain, convulsing, the impact of poisonous spines similar to a snake bite. Often, swimmers or fishermen, accidentally stepped on the stingray, are its victims, as the ramp immediately encircled by the tail a leg does a strong man and a thorn prick. If the spike breaks down and can not be removed, the person can die.
At rays butterfly and bracken poisonous spike at the base of the tail, which does not allow them to inflict a heavy blow, but under certain conditions it is also dangerous.
Ordinary electric ray (Torpedo marmorata). Length 1.5 m (width 1 m) may reach 30 kg of weight. On the back is a beautiful marble pattern. It is dangerous because it strikes the victim, accompanied by an electric discharge. In humans, it causes a loss of sensitivity of the affected area of the body, drowsiness, tremors in the limbs. Widely distributed in all the seas of the temperate zone.
Blind electric ray (Typhlonarke aysoni). It reaches 1.2 m in length. The discharge is very sensitive and painful tolerated. It is widespread in the western Pacific and the Indian Ocean.
Alex Hludov12 May 2014 at 00:00