Novaya Zemlya archipelago is rich in wildlife, but Pomors industrialists attracted primarily marine mammals, while abounding in the coastal waters of the archipelago, namely — walruses, seals and beluga whales.
The city of Arkhangelsk in the XIX century was the starting point of many polar expeditions, including Chichagova Litke, Rusanov and Pakhtusova.
Here’s how to describe the hunt for walrus Vladimir Lvov, author «New Earth: Its nature, wildlife, fisheries and population» (1914): «Walrus — an enormous animal from 5 to 7 yards long and 40 to 70 pounds of weight. Killed Walrus deliver 15 pounds of fat, and a couple of valuable tusks skin — very strong and thick with finger… Walruses swim to New
Earth and spring stay here at all summer. Hunt walruses different ways. Or crept up with him the side opposite the wind, industrialists beat them with clubs, fettered by iron or fire special homemade rifles, called morzhovkami. Since a thick layer of fat weakens the force of impact, the rifle bullets large charge, which are prepared by the same Pomorie, Only ten pieces of one pound of lead. Hunting Walrus is very dangerous, since being wounded and rassviripev, walrus becomes terrible. However, despite danger, boldly go to the industrialists walrus because this hunt is very profitable: each animal killed, counting fat, and fangs skin, gives 50 rubles income».
Besides fishing and walruses belugas, revenues were also fishing. There is evidence that our people were engaged in the New Earth is not hunting and Only fisheries, but and the search for mineral resources. Preserved documents showing that XVII century, the Russian government sent to the Archipelago of people to search for ore. AT 1651 «of sovereign and Tsarev Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich of All Great and Small and Belyja Russian autocrat’s decree is sent to the New Earth for the inquest and serebryanyya mednyya ore Stone and uzorochnogo Jewelers is pleased to consider the places Roman Neplyuev». The personnel of the expedition consisted of 83 people. Approximately at at the same time Archipelago was sent to the purpose of searches of silver ore vanvanja, he was also ordered to build a fortress here. Nekludov been to New Earth twice. But «It is sent a second time, with lots of workers who are not he returned there, but all killed». The search for silver Archipelago appeared in ultimately groundless, but their echo was name but one ofvozemelskih bays — Serebryanka lip.
Mid-30s of the XIX century was the heyday of the harvesting of marine animals at the time of the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya to eighty year there were a Pomeranian courts. In the coastal waters to catch Arctic char, polar cod, capelin, cod and saffron cod. On land they hunted polar bears, as well as collecting eiderdown.
The most famous «novozemeltsem» XVIII century is considered Fedot Rachmaninoff, an industrialist from Mezen, who wintered on archipelago twenty six times. Pomors traveled and to the extreme northern tip of Novaya Zemlya — Cape Desire, they called it the Cape of income. By the testimony of the historian and the Archangel ethnographer, corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences Vasily Krestinina (1739) «below this nose, which starts from the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, industrialists Kara Sea for fishing beast drive on the multitude of portable ice».
TO eastern shores of the archipelago Pomors went really rare, but the cape, which wintered about Barents, was known to them — they called him «Controversial Navolok». AT the end of the XVIII century Mezensky industrialist Alexey farmer and rounded the Cape of Desire I passed in this way the mouth of the Ob River. That farmer told about Krestinina swimming around Novaya Zemlya his friend Sava Loshkin. This industrialist about 1760 walked around the whole archipelago with two winter on eastern shore. Swimming was a real feat because Loshkin managed to do it in unfavorable with the point of view of ice conditions years.
GIVE FOR LIFE SCIENCES
Visits not Pomor New Earth We had the purpose of the study of the archipelago, while simultaneously accumulating the most valuable information that industrialists eagerly supplied researchers, including out of their the way foreigners. The first peer-Russian expedition New Earth was the expedition of Fyodor Rozmyslova in 1768−1769 years. The reason for its organization was the message a vaster Jacob
Chirakina about that he 1766 passed the New Earth «transversely through on another called the Kara Sea», And shot them Chirakin presented a plan Strait description of the coast of the island to Mezhdusharsky Island east of the mouth of Matochkin Shar. The news Chirakina interested Arkhangelsk Governor Golovtsyna who grabbed the idea of the study of the Strait as a possible way to Obi. Plan approved of the expedition itself Catherine II, so the company received the state status. The vessel for the expedition provided the Arkhangelsk merchant Barmin and Chief Golovtsyn not appointed Chirakina and «navigator porutcheskogo rank» Fedor Rozmyslova, because, According to the governor, he was «at a vaster navigation
Chirakina superior to». The expedition had a difficult task — besides shooting strait, try to find out, «is not there a way to continue to try to the place to accept the way in North America». Also instructed to find out «whether on New Earth and some ores minerals», a explore the flora and the fauna of the archipelago. August 25, 1768 came to an expedition western mouth of Matochkin Shar, and September 10 reached the eastern exit of the Strait. Kara Sea was ice-free, but Rozmyslov not I decided to further voyage as the ship gave a serious leak. It was decided to spend the winter, and ship repair then continue the journey. The crew was divided into two equal detachment, organized the parking Tyuleny Gulf and Woodburning at Cape. The winter passed in very difficult conditions. Chirakin ill in early
wintering and He died on November 28 to spring from scurvy and other diseases died out half of the participants of the expedition. Despite losses and own illness,
Rozmyslov with May has started the implementation of the scientific program — carrying out astronomical observations and surveying. AT June, he finished shooting and Matochkin Bowl He engaged in ship repair. August 13 remaining members of the expedition reached the sea, but Vessel despite repair, remained fragile and a day in the way of the expedition Kara Sea was blocked by ice. Rozmyslov ordered to return. AT Matochkin Shar expedition caught the boat Pomor Anton Ermolkin and kormschik proposed distress
Mariners move to his ship. Rozmyslov accepted the offer, and September 19, 1769 the expedition returned to Arkhangelsk. Of the fourteen members of the expedition Only six survived. None less expedition managed to produce an excellent shot and Matochkin Bowl gather interesting information about the nature of the New Earth.
Walrus tusk engraved — the scene of hunting polar bear walrus.
Ten years after the expedition Rozmyslova Academician IA Gildenshtedt presented in St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences of the new research project on travel Archipelago, justifying its urgent need for development «Physical geography natural history, and Trading in Russia connection with hitherto neglected catching marine animals». This project is supported by not It was, but he provided the impetus to the edition
Academy first consolidated labor the geography of the New Earth. AT This work includes the work of Arkhangelsk tradesman Vasily Krestinina called «Geographic news New Land of the midnight edge». Although the Krestinin on Archipelago is not was neither once he has collected in this work and I processed the information received from the industrialists-coast-dwellers, thus retaining the names of the discoverers of the archipelago and their achievements for posterity.
Interest in mineral riches of the New Earth gave rise to the organization of the next expedition — under the direction of Basil mining official in Ludlow 1807 The funds on the She singled out the State Chancellor Count NP Rumyantsev. The expedition set out from Coke to yacht «Bee». The commander of the ship, a retired navigator Gregory Pospelov discover inaccuracies in issued him the card, produced during travel and shooting It was then «good map … from the ball to Costin Matochkin». Vasily Ludlov visited Serebryanka lip, but signs silver ores there found. However, he was able to detect sulfur and chalcopyrite. He believed that these deposits may be of practical significance, and recommended to continue the study of mineral resources of the archipelago.
Samoyed tent and its occupants in a summer fishing village Matochkin, located on the shores of the proliva.V 1935 population ten encampments in the New Earth is 390 people. The village does not exist anymore. One hundred and four families were evacuated from the island after the decision on the opening of the Novaya Zemlya nuclear test site in 1954 with the center in Belushya lip. On site Matochkin underground tests were conducted in 1964-1990, respectively.
In 1819, the Russian government decided to equip New Earth next expedition to conduct an inventory of the South Island of the archipelago. Leaders of the expedition commissioned lieutenant Andrei Petrovich Lazarev, brother of the discoverer of Antarctica — Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev. However, Andrei Petrovich made its mark — because of the mass of the crew of the disease he did not even I began to survey and I turned back. Work continued Lieutenant Fedor Petrovich (Ferdinand) Litke 1821−1824.
Litke studied in detail and the south western shore of Novaya Zemlya — from the southern tip to the Cape Nassau, but to the northern tip him well unable to reach because of the large accumulation of ice, not telling about to penetrate Kara Sea.
Proceedings Litke continued Ensign Corps naval navigators Peter Kuzmich Pakhtusov. During the first expedition in 1832 Novaya Zemlya−1833. he was able to survey the entire east coast of the South Island of the archipelago. However Pakhtusov refused to conduct further work to north of Matochkin Shar — the six-person crew had only two healthy. While the overwintering went relatively well, scurvy broke out in the spring, from which two members of the expedition died. In the spring of travelers also suffer from snow blindness — Sunglasses even then not were in Used from Polar Explorers. In order to somehow protect the eyes from glare, and Pakhtusov his companions black soot of the face around the eyes.
Each wintering could cost lives — scurvy fatalities was among the Russian polar explorers common and meat marine animals, and the polar bear, which could provide the body with essential substances Pomors food not consumed, considering «nasty.»
The second expedition went to Pakhtusova New Earth in August 1834. On this time in front of him had the task has not yet been described studied the eastern shore of the northern islands of the archipelago. It was also suggested «try as circumstances permit, to penetrate east and north of Cape
Desire for inspection without whether for Sim directions any more unknown islands». On This time the expedition Kara Sea do not go managed — eastern part of Matochkin Shar was already packed with ice. The expedition left on winter. Despite adopted measures to avoid scurvy not It failed, February has had six patients.
FROM March Pakhtusov opisnye started work. He tried to get around the North Island on karbase with west to east, but crushed ice watercraft Berchem island. Travelers rescued accidentally approached the Island industrialist Eremin, he took them to Matochkin. Failure does not Pakhtusova stopped and after a few days taken from Manufacturers karbase he Strait came in Kara Sea. Using a strip of clean water, he passed along the east coast of the North Island and It reached a group of islands later named after him. However, further north of the ice is directly adjacent to shore, and Pakhtusov had to turn back. October 19, 1835 the expedition returned to Arkhangelsk. TO Unfortunately, a bad cold, and hard work undermined the health Pakhtusova and he died in Arkhangelsk month after returning from a trip to the age of 36. He was buried in the Peter Kuzmich Solombala Cemetery, his tomb survived until still and supported order by the participants of Arkhangelsk Voluntary cultural and educational society «North».
Description Arctic expeditions and the great discoveries of our compatriots have come to us through surviving records themselves travelers, as well as publications of different years. In particular, it is of interest for posterity Edition 1922, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of scientific research PK Pahtusova.Trudy NO Chulkova Rozmyslova describe the expedition, as well as «quadruple journey to the Arctic Ocean in 1821, 1822, 1823 and 1824, which made by order of Emperor Alexander I, Lieutenant Commander Fyodor Petrovich Litke» .For the purposes of the northern Litke expedition to Novaya Zemlya was specially built Brig titled «A New Earth.»
Svetlana Mashkov-Horkina12 May 2012 at 00:00