So you raised your pet. Now it’s time to move on to its intended purpose. And then you expect all sorts of troubles. For example, injuries, poisoning, bites of poisonous snakes.
Photo by Aleksey Factor
There are open and closed injuries. The former include razmozhzhenie tissue, external skin lesions (wounds, scratches) and subject to enforcement, as well as open fractures in the ground breaking of the surface tissue. By the close of injuries include bruises, sprain, muscle tears, fractures, concussions and closed.
Let us examine them in stages. Here’s what experts recommend in veterinary trauma.
Cuts, pocus, tears
The first thing to do in this type of injury, – thoroughly wash the area of skin damage. If around the wound grows thick hair, it must be cut out, and even better shave. Rinse the area around the wound with hydrogen peroxide is best: it not only dissolves dirt but also serves as a disinfectant and styptic. Be careful! If you wash away dried blood directly from the wounds, the bleeding may start again.
Then, should assess the extent of damage. If the wound is not longer than 1.5–2 cm and you firmly believe that it is deep, it can not sew. Otherwise, a visit to the surgeon is desired, and if the wound is large, is required. The wound is considered fresh if from the time of injury was not more than 6 hours, and it is not infected. In this case it is shown suturing. In all other cases the wound is not sutured and treated with open-pit under a scab.
If you can not provide the dog immediate surgical care, try to pull the edges of the wound and the skin lock in this position. Fix the wound edges can plaster followed by ligation, or a tight bandage. Recently, for fixing the tubular bandage is applied. They are designed for people, so the approach to the selection of the size of the creative. Tubular bandage for finger is quite suitable for the fixation of bandages on his leg a little dog, and «femoral» Bandage is suitable for housing a dog of medium size. If in such a bandage to cut holes for the legs, we get a kind «lace» overall, to be close-fitting body of an animal. In the process of wound healing and treat the area around the same with hydrogen peroxide or brilliant green. Large wounds better handle disinfecting ointment, preferably iruksolom. At a later stage, you can use healing agents, for example solkoseril. Try to ensure that the dog does not razlizyvala wound healing may be delayed differently. You can apply various constraints such as collars, which are used after cupping his ears.
Sprains, strains, contusions
If the dog began to limp, it is recommended to check whether she sprains, strains the joint capsule, or joint injury. Of course, first you need to make sure that the lameness is not caused by external damage to the limb. The main outward sign of dislocation – Dog steps on the injured leg. To test the need to bend the limb of the animal alternately in different joints. Painful reaction to dogs on certain joint flexion indicates suspicion of injury in this joint.
Another possible evidence – painful response to palpation of the joint. Further features of the injuries of the joints may be scratches or clicks, which publishes the joint in flexion. In case of suspicion of an injury replacement is necessary to show the dog veterinary surgeon. Applying ice to the site of injury should only be if the dog is suffering greatly. Cold causes that muscle and cartilage around the joint is compressed, so the dislocation (if any) to the right will be more difficult. Help the dog to avoid stress on the injured limb.
Sometimes lameness is a result of the so-called blunt trauma, – in other words, injury. This is accompanied by a painful response to palpation of bone interarticular zone. Sometimes you can find a hematoma that occurs in the soft tissues located near the surface of the bone. Blunt trauma does not require an urgent visit to the doctor. However, similar symptoms at the crack in the bone. We should not forget that the blunt trauma may subsequently cause cancer. So for the best place to watch the injury for some time after all the trauma symptoms disappear.
Next on the severity of the damage can be regarded as a broken limb. Its main feature is an unnatural position, as well as shortening of the legs of the dog. At the turn, as in the dislocation, the dog never rests on the injured limb. If the fracture is open, there is a wound inflicted by a fragment of bone inside. When fractures should consult a doctor immediately. The dog should be transported in a lying position. In order to avoid further displacement of the damaged sections of bone, it is necessary to impose on the end time bus. You can use a variety of objects: sticks, strips of plastic, metal, etc. Fix the tire is desirable elastic bandage. With an open fracture treated the wound, as recommended in the first section. In cases of combined injuries caused by traumatic strong stimulus (eg, road or ungulates), should be wary of traumatic shock and internal bleeding cavity. Signs of shock, loss of consciousness, involuntary movements of the extremities (floating movement), spasmodic pulse. Strong blood loss may indicate pale mucous membranes.
How to deal with the shock? At the risk of injury is shock caused by two reasons. In the first case it is due to a large loss of blood. To stop the bleeding should tourniquet. It should apply only to those segments of the limb where single bone: on the hip or shoulder (not shin, or upper arm). Wiring should be applied near the center of the segment: it is easier to pinch vessels. In the second case it is a painful shock. To prevent it (if you think that the injury is very painful) can be cauterized. You can use analgin, baralgin or other similar means. Small dogs administered 1.5–2 mL, large – to 5 mL of anesthetic. To support the activity of the heart can give a dog heart medications.
Suppuration superficial wounds – the only complication, which the owner can handle himself. To combat the festering using aseptic ointments and solutions. You can wash the wound with antiseptic or antibiotic (preferably from the syringe). Fighting suppuration extensive and deep wounds prerogative specialist. To self-medicate in such cases, it is not recommended: possible serious complications.
A sign of complications after a bone injury is a long time (more than a week) do not stop limping. In this case, you must show a dog doctor. A very common complication – periostitis: the anguish muscle has local inflammation, which then covers the entire muscle.
If you are traveling to an area where emergency care can not be obtained, then take care that your veterinary medicine chest certainly had the means that are required in case of injuries: disinfecting and healing agents (hydrogen peroxide, furatsilin, potassium permanganate), elastic and gauze bandages, tourniquet pain relievers. How to equip a first aid kit for the dog, you can read in any veterinary reference. And remember that the best preventive measure is a serious injury leash and collar, if the situation and common sense require their use.
And another is not an easy moment. It’s about the head and spine injuries. A sign of spinal injury can be limp. In severe cases where the damaged spinal cord, paralysis or twitching limbs. In such a situation one way out – urgently to the doctor! The dog should be carefully laid on a sheet of plywood, cardboard, etc. Suitable any solid «substrate»As long as the spine of the dog as little as possible exposed to external loads.
Any cases of traumatic brain injury, with or without fractures can be accompanied by damage to the brain. The most common cause of injury are road traffic accidents, strokes, falls and stings less – bullet wounds. Very often head injuries occur in small breeds.
The main effects of brain damage
• Cardiac and respiratory
• Severe hypotension
• Status epilepticus.
• Cerebrovascular injury (stroke)
In any case, traumatic brain injury should ensure that your dog calm and immediately contact a veterinary clinic.
Take care of your pets!
Igor Borodavkin23 June 2012 at 00:00