Sannikov Land … We know it is a geographical name of science-fiction novel by Vladimir Obruchev and the same film with Oleg Dal in the title role. «There is only a moment between the past and the future …» — Yes, and for this popular song from the movie. However, a mysterious Sannikov Land — is not only a legend …
Engraving «Gen. Yakuts». The magazine Le Tour du Monde, 1860.
For a long time it was thought that this island or archipelago does exist, he was seen and industrialists scientists, but visit it so no one failed.
By the end of the XIX century Russian merchants and industrialists search «Golden Fleece» that time — Soboleva furs — far advanced Siberia and north to the Pacific Ocean. However, a few years later the «the source of happiness» exhausted itself, and It was replaced by a new — mammoth ivory. Local residents — Yukagirs, and Tungus Yakuts were known to the whole of the island, covered with this treasure. AT search for ivory and opened new sources of revenue and new lands.
AT 1750 Yakut merchant Ivan Lyakhov opened a peninsula between the lip and Hatanskoy Anabar river abounded fossil treasures. From the Yakuts, he learned that a north of the m. Holy Nose there are other, more wealthy island and 1770 , at the dog sleds traveled on ice two islands, which later was named his honor — Large and Small Lyakhovsky Islands. AT 1773 opened a third Lyakhov, the largest island of the archipelago — Boiler, so named for them Forgotten because there is a copper boiler.
ABOUT He reported his findings to the Government and I tried to procure themselves the exclusive right to earn one and furs ivory on he discovered lands, and on those, «he opens the future». So he got right, but do not use it He had since died.
After the death of his Lyakhov monopoly passed to Syrovatskii merchant, who 1805 sent to the Island tradesman Jacob Sannikov for fishing and ivory to discover new islands. AND Indeed, during trips 1805 to 1808. Sannikov and his colleagues discovered a new island — Pole, and Faddeevsky New Siberia. Then 1808 Merchant Bel’kov opened another island, named his name — Belkovsky.
Yakov Sannikov lived on about. The boiler and the whole summer I have collected a wealth of material for the description of the island. During that summer pasture to north of the island, he saw «the contours of the land», but getting there is not unable to because of the large number of polynyas. By In the same reason it is not I could reach another land, which saw a New Siberian Islands.
Materials of his observations, he handed the officer seconded to Irkutsk governor Matvey Gedenshtromu. Together with surveyor and Kozhevina Surveyor Pshenitsyn Gedenshtrom in 1808−1810. conducted work on study and the description of the newly discovered islands, Surveillance Sannikov served him well. On published in 1811 map he labeled those distant inaccessible land as «land, had seen Sannikov».
In 1820, at the the island sent a new expedition, Curb Marine Ministry, under the command of Lieutenant PF Anjou, who was assigned to describe the entire coast from the river. Lena up Indigirka, and all of the New Siberian Islands seen by Sannikau land. He performed the first two points of his instructions, but Sannikov Land is not open to him managed. April 5, 1821 went to Peter F. on the north. Boiler, but nothing is saw at the horizon was clean. He suggested that Sannikov received for the land fog.
After half a century of Sannikov Land remembered again, This time, thanks to an American expedition George DeLong. On vessel «Jeannette» he is in August 1879 crossed the Bering Strait toward Chukotka and thence decided to reach the North Pole. AT 1881 he discovered in East Siberian Sea, a small group of islands, which later received his name.
In July this year, the party landed with DeLong ship in distress on one of the islands in this group, known as «Bennett Island», at honor to sponsor the expedition. Trying to get to continent, De Long was killed. AT Russian Geographical Society there is a hypothesis that the island and Bennett Henrietta archipelago of De Long and there is «seen by Sannikau land» from New Siberian Islands. By According to the scientist secretary RGS AV Grigorieva, phenomenal transparency in the air Arctic enhances visibility, so a considerable distance between the lands does not embarrass must.
He also spoke positively on about the possibility of the existence of land to the north of. Boiler.
«On clear summer days, with the northern tip of a boiler room group of the New Siberian Islands under 76? N, one can see the four mountains, just rising above the northern horizon, — Sannikov Land is not yet achieved by anyone» — So begins in 1898 a «Project expedition Sannikov Land» outstanding Russian scientist and geologist Eduard V. Toll.
During his expedition New Siberian Islands in In 1886 he actually saw it. Moreover, he even made the view its geological structure: «Sannikov in the world, and that I saw from a distance a on the northern end. Boiler during clear weather in the summer of 1886, seen mesas, in the form of which we can assume that they too trappean» (ie, consisting of igneous rocks). On Based on its geological observations Toll suggested that «north of the New Siberian Islands archipelago is still perhaps not smaller than the island of Franz Josef», and very rich in mineral resources.
Toll in 1893 on a meeting of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society made a plan a new expedition. Its purpose was to study the north-eastern sector of the Arctic and open vision to them 1886 Sannikov Land.
Toll expedition members on board the schooner «Dawn»: In the top row, third from left — AV Kolchak. Second row: NN Kolomiytsev, FA Mathisen, EV Toll, the doctor of the expedition, Walter, an astronomer F. Seeberg.
According to the project Ships Toll expedition was to go to and the mouth of the Lena possible to go further in to the river Yakutsk, where stay at winter. The following summer, taking aboard sled dogs mushers in Lena Delta, the ship was supposed to try to penetrate the north to Island boiler room. AT If successful, it could reach the most northern part of Sannikov Land and Bennett Island, where land wintering party. In the summer of 1901 The ship had to return and pick wintering.
However, before you start preparing the expedition, the project was to be considered by the Special Commission and be recognized as valid. Then, the Academy of Sciences and the Russian Geographical Society, and not head of the expedition, turned to government application for financial support. Discussions and discussions have taken an entire year.
Toll was asked to change the plan, and In March 1899, he presented a new project: the expedition was to be held in Two Arctic winter: one on the east coast of the Taimyr Peninsula and second — on Sannikov Land, then continue on the journey east to Bering Strait and Pacific, to implement, so sail on through Northeast Passage.
Initial scientific program of the expedition was expanded to a thorough examination of the northern coast of Eastern Siberia and New Siberian Islands. All this was of great practical importance for Russia. The first map of the northern coast of Siberia has been drawn up during the Great Northern Expedition in The XVIII century.
AT end of XIX century it was still the only map of the region, although in She and introduced significant amendments to the foreign expeditions «Vega» and «Fram». However, for more precise mapping marine survey had to be combined with shooting on shore. It is with For this purpose the expedition ought to spend the winter Taimyr coast. The ultimate goal of the expedition was the discovery and Study Sannikov Land.
In July, 1899 Mr. Toll received 60 000 rubles for the purchase of the vessel, while the remaining amount (180 000) was released only in January 1900 this amount of funds (240 000 rub.) Toll had to cover all costs Expedition: purchase and re-equipment of the ship, reward participants for two years, the purchase of supplies on three years, research tools, and other equipment equipment in including 20 000 rubles. on supporting the expedition. On additional funding can not count had — Ministry of Finance is very strict about budget spending.
Due to cost savings for the expedition, it was decided to buy some strong Norwegian ship. After reviewing several ships acquired by Toll Nansen advice of the seal vessel «Harald Fairhair» (Harald Harfager), subsequently renamed «Dawn». It was a three-masted barque, built in Christians 1873 .; 44 m length 10.2 m width, draft of 5.4 meters. The ship had ice belt of larch 3m and width 2 m depth of the water line, and its sides were reinforced with steel plates.
To prepare for the Expedition «Dawn» sent to Colin Archer shipyard in Larvik, where built the famous «Fram» Nansen. It has strengthened its case by diagonal struts, changed by sailing equipment barquentine sample. Conditions for life works were boat quite comfortable, and the room is specially insulated lit by electricity. In addition, we built four laboratory for hydrological, geological and Biological Studies and Photo. During the conversion process followed the deputy chief of the expedition Lieutenant Nikolai Kolomeytsev.
The expedition was part of research at the highest the time of qualification, of 7 human, — three naval officers and four scientists. Toll himself was responsible for the program of geological research. For biological studies Expedition posted a senior zoologist of the Zoological Museum of the Academy of Sciences, an expert on marine fauna AA Birulya. MD Hermann Walter served as physician and bacteriologist second zoologist.
The fourth was a scholar Friedrich Seeberg, a senior lecturer of physics and astronomer magnetologist expedition. Positions hydrography meteorologists Russian polar expeditions have traditionally occupied the naval officers. AT Russian polar expedition of the research areas responsible lieutenants FA Mathisen and AV Kolchak. Besides scientists and officers, The expedition was another 13-man squad.
Solemn departure Russian Polar Expedition of St. Petersburg was held June 21, 1900. AT September of the same year Taimyr Peninsula expedition had to stand on first winter. Only 9 September 1901 «Dawn» reached the intended area of Sannikov Land. «Small depth talk about ground proximity, — Toll in writing his diary, — but to date it has not it is seen…» The sailor from «crow’s nest» Only saw a horseshoe-shaped ice-belt, and for him — band of free water («… I have severe misgivings creep … but enough of this!»).
On next day heavy fog thickened, making further searches and meaningless Toll bringing unexpected relief: «Now it is absolutely clear that it was possible to pass ten times Earth Sannikov, not noticing her». September 16, 1901 the ship fell second winter in lagoon Nerpalah have west coast of the island boiler room.
In the spring of 1902, and Baron Toll his three companions — astronomer FG Seeberg and two local hunters Manufacturers — Vasily Gorokhov Nikolai Dyakonov — We went to Bennett Island, where they are expected to move on to Sannikov Land.
The ship was supposed to pick them up as soon as the sea free of ice, but this proved impossible due to severe ice conditions. When a rescue party led by Lieutenant Kolchak arrived at island In 1903, she found only geological collections and note, which reported that Toll Bennett left the island in October 1902 Traces of the missing parties and They were not found, and Sannikov Land and It remained a mystery.
Despite This expedition was a great scientific and practical significance due to the hydrographic and Cartographic work on coast and shooting rich materials collected from research. By the results of the Russian Polar Expedition of its hydrograph Lieutenant AV Kolchak has prepared a monograph «Ice Kara and Siberian Seas».
AT 1928 , this work was translated into English and published by the American Geographical Society collection «Problems of Polar Research». For participation in Expedition Kolomeytsev lieutenants, and Mathisen Kolchak was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 4-th degree, AV Kolchak also was awarded the highest award of the Russian Geographical Society — Konstantinovskaya medals, which, apart from him, and had only Nordensheld Nansen.
It is believed that Sannikov Land still existed then disappeared into result of active geological processes. Such a conclusion was made by Soviet scientists in the Based on observations of the nearby islands. So, the island Semyonov almost halve in 1946 and in 1950 he disappeared altogether; Vasilevsky Island ceased to exist in 1936 «There is only a moment between the past and future — it was he who called life». — words of the song to the a film about Sannikov Land with Geologically very justice towards this mysterious archipelago.
Svetlana Mashkov-Horkina18 January 2013 at 00:00