In recent years, the world has made significant progress in the production of guns and ammunition. All these achievements have become available in our country. And yet, even the most perfect modern shotgun is basically flawed.

Kinetic energy, which creates a powder charge, shot, not like a pool, extremely wasteful spending as the consequence of reducing its speed in flight, and, to a much greater extent (dozens of times) from dissipating into space.

The projectile is shot, leaving the gun barrel, it has enormous kinetic energy of the order of 3-3.5 thousand joules, which is equivalent to raising a mass of 1 kg to a height of 300-350 meters. The density of this energy is 1100-1400 joules per cm2, but at a distance, for example, 20 meters to half the energy density of the charge fraction even when shooting from a strong choke decreases of 170 times, and by reducing the velocity of all fractions in 1.8 times, and for by dispersion — 94 times.

The energy density of the other half of the fraction on the periphery is reduced to an even greater extent.

The effectiveness of the shot the shot depends on four basic factors: a gun, a cartridge, and the art of shooting distance shooter.

**Gun.**

No doubt, that the trunks must have improved internal and external geometry and quality of the steel to achieve a desired initial speed at a desired uniformity fractions its talus.

**Cartridge.**

Equipment Requirements patron imposed the same strict as to the gun, from the cartridge cases, primers, wads, shot and twist (or bend) the edges of the liner.

**Distance shooting.**

If the first two factors may shooter «keep under control», The distance from the shooting hand is independent — it should either agree on a shot, or abandon it. Slaughter circle, the maximum at a certain distance, with increasing distance shooting drastically reduced, and hit the target only the center of the talus, and then to a certain limit.

For example, if at a distance of 35 m in the target is 4 grains, then at a distance of 40 meters they will have 3. And it is fired from a full choke. No wonder Buturlin and Sergey and Alexey Zernov argued that the lack of field – lacks accuracy. And with this we can agree. There is another saying: «Sharpness is never too much».

However, this is not quite true. If any excessive sharpness distance, you just need to take a smaller fraction and increase accuracy. More correct is the thesis: «Slaughter circle is never too much».

**Art arrow.**

As mentioned above, the accuracy of the fraction with increasing distance shooting falls. Requirements for precision aiming while increasing. When shooting at a short distance slaughter circle also small, but the distance is small, so the ratio of the radius of a circle to slaughter shooting distance (margin of error of aiming) until the optimal distance remains approximately constant, and then begins to decrease sharply.

A.A.Zernov believed that a good shooter is mean error of 1% of the distance and the average – 15%. I will assume that a great shooter has an error of 0.5%, while outstanding — 0.3%. Since the probability of hitting the circle of certain radius obeys the Rayleigh distribution, it is easy to calculate the probability of hitting a particular purpose.

For example, when shooting kryakovoy duck shot №5 (200 pellets in the projectile), the largest radius of the circle is equal to the slaughter of 29.5 cm. The optimum distance when shooting full choke is 32.5 m. Consequently, the deviation of 1.5%; 1%; 0.5% and 0.3% of the distance is 48.75; 32.5; 16.25 and 9.75 cm, respectively. The probabilities of hitting a target at the same time are: 22% (3 of 4 shots slip), 45% (1 of 2 shots slip), 90% (1 of 10 shots miss) and 99.8 (2 slip out of 1,000 shots).

I want to draw attention to one thing. Middle arrow under these conditions, shooting from the cylinder at the optimum distance of 20 m, will have a chance of hitting the target of 49%, that is higher than that of a good shooter, shoot a full choke. And because at this distance greater speed shot, you can use a fraction №7, which will provide the probability of hitting the target is already 68%.

No wonder the old hunter said that gun heap malodobychlivo. However, in those days there was more game and shoot at extreme distances does not make sense. And now shoot excessively general criminal.

Igor Arbuzov19 December 2013 at 00:00