enemy units located behind shelters and inaccessible to the ground rifle and artillery fire, as well as located openly. 82-mm mortars shoot with feathered fragmentation mines, therefore they cannot be used to destroy dugouts, bunkers, bunkers, trenches and other structures.
All samples of 82-mm mortars have the same ballistic properties, and they use the same standard shots, mini, charges. The light weight of mortars, the ability to disassemble them into separate packs, and for mortars of the 1941 and 1943 model, the possibility, in addition, of transporting on wheels, provides greater mobility (maneuverability) and allows them to follow infantry wherever a soldier can go.
The large steepness of the trajectory provides firing 82-mm mortar from deep shelters, through its units, facilitates the choice of firing position and camouflage, makes mortars less vulnerable by the enemy’s wall fire. The small dimensions of the mortars and the simplicity of design make it easier to service in battle, care for them and study them.
General structure and principle of operation of the 82-mm mortar model 1937, 1941 and 1943.
The 82-mm mortar consists of four main parts: the barrel, two-leg carriage, base plate and sights. The mortar barrel serves to inform the mine of the desired direction. To produce a shot, the mine is lowered by the stabilizer (tail) into the muzzle of the barrel. Under the influence of its own weight, it slides down the bore and is pierced by the capsule of the tail cartridge (main charge), located in the tube of the mine stabilizer, on the hammer, screwed into the bottom of the breech.
Fire from the capsule ignites the powder charge of the tail cartridge. Gunpowder gases break through the cardboard shell of the liner and through the fire-transfer holes of the stabilizer tube exit into the bore, where they create pressure under the influence of which the mine is ejected onto the mortar barrel. The tail cartridge is the smallest charge, so when shooting with only one tail cartridge, the smallest firing ranges from 100 to 475 meters are obtained.
To increase the firing range, additional charges are used that are fixed between the feathers of the stabilizer or put on the tube of the stabilizer mines. When fired, the powder gases of the tail cartridge bursting from the stabilizer tube ignite additional charges, from the combustion of which the pressure in the barrel increases, and the mine is ejected from the barrel at a higher speed and, therefore, at a greater range. A few extra charges are used to provide the best flexibility for fire..
The two-leg carriage serves to support the trunk, giving it the required elevation angle and horizontal aiming. Therefore, all aiming mechanisms are placed on the two-leg carriage: lifting, swivel and leveling mechanism. Bipod carriage connected to the barrel with a clip.
At the time of the shot, the recoil force is absorbed by the base plate, which is pressed into the ground during the shot. Due to soil precipitation, the barrel during the shot has the ability to move a little back, carrying the biped. To reduce the impact force, which at the same time experiences a two-leg carriage and which has a destructive effect on sights and aiming mechanisms, the two-leg is connected to the barrel by a spring shock absorber, which softens the blow on the two-leg carriage.