An attack of bronchial asthma is manifested by periodically occurring attacks of suffocation. Their frequency and duration depend on the severity of the disease. Contact with an allergen, heavy physical exertion, staying in a stuffy or polluted air, strong odors provoke an attack in patients with bronchial asthma.
An attack of bronchial asthma and false croup, causes, symptoms, first aid for an attack of bronchial asthma and false croup.
An attack of suffocation can develop in them even with emotional stress, sudden changes in the temperature of atmospheric air, in very windy weather. Another cause may be concomitant infectious diseases of the respiratory system..
with wheezing breath. Before the attack, a runny nose, itching in the nasopharynx, dry cough, a feeling of pressure behind the sternum appear. An asthmatic attack develops almost immediately after contact with an allergen and quickly stops after it disappears. Attacks of bronchial asthma caused by a household allergen usually proceed more easily than caused by an infection. At the end of the attack, a small amount of clear, viscous sputum is released during coughing..
A prolonged attack of bronchial asthma is able to go into asthmatic status. It can develop with any kind of bronchial asthma. It is characterized by a rapid increase in shortness of breath and signs of respiratory failure, the lack of effect from the administration of drugs such as adrenaline, ephedrine, bronchodilator inhalers (phenoterol, orciprenaline sulfate) and others.
Asthmatic status is divided into three stages. At stage I, an asthma attack develops, which is not removed by the above drugs. In stage II, an increase in respiratory failure occurs. At stage III, a coma develops: the patient has a loss of consciousness, breathing becomes deep, the exhalation is elongated, the blueness of the skin increases, blood pressure drops.
First aid for an asthma attack.
Immediate elimination of patient contact with the allergen. It is necessary to unfasten the tightening chest clothing, to provide access to fresh air. Hot baths for arms and legs help ease breathing. The subcutaneous administration of drugs such as 0.5–1 ml of a 1% solution of adrenaline hydrochloride, 0.5–1 ml of a 5% solution of ephedrine hydrochloride is shown.
Effective for restoring normal breathing inhalation of fenoterol, orciprenaline sulfate, salbutamol. 10 ml of a 2.4% solution of aminophylline in 10–20 ml of a 0.9% solution of sodium chloride are administered intravenously. If there is no effect of the above measures, then it means that asthmatic status has developed. In this case, hormonal preparations are administered very slowly intravenously (60–150 mg of prednisone, 100–500 mg of hydrocortisone).
Prednisolone is also prescribed orally for the period of an asthmatic condition. Spend the introduction of solutions that reduce intoxication. Apply drugs that expand the bronchi (aminophylline), expectorants (drugs containing iodine, and others). Carry out inhalations with oxygen and warm steam inhalations with saline, chest massage.
With the development of stage II asthmatic status, in addition to the above treatment methods, heparin is administered intravenously to improve blood flow. If a rapid increase in carbon dioxide content occurs in it, which is confirmed by a laboratory study of blood, then mechanical ventilation of the lungs begins.
At the last stage of asthmatic status, against the background of constant mechanical ventilation of the lungs with an oxygen-air mixture, every 30 minutes the airways are rinsed with antiseptics and physiological saline. Drip administration of drug solutions and hormones is continued. Patients with severe asthma attacks and asthmatic status should be hospitalized..
False croup, causes, symptoms, first aid.
False croup is a narrowing of the lumen of the larynx as a result of inflammatory edema, accumulation of secretion, muscle spasm. In young children, false croup is a formidable complication of acute respiratory infections. This syndrome occurs with parainfluenza, flu and other acute respiratory pathologies accompanied by laryngitis..
Symptoms of False Croup.
False croup is characterized by a triad of symptoms: a rough barking cough, noisy stenotic breathing, hoarseness of voice. Laryngeal stenosis occurs suddenly, usually at night. The child wakes up from a cough, becomes restless, scared. Laryngeal stenosis has four degrees of severity:
– I degree – a rough barking cough, provoked by a deepening of the breath, shortness of breath and hoarseness of the voice, arising only during physical exertion.
– II degree – distinct signs of acute respiratory failure (pallor of the skin, frequent pulse), noisy breathing, active participation in the breathing of auxiliary muscles; children are anxious, excited.
– III degree – persistent respiratory failure (cyanosis of the lips, earlobes, tip of the nose, pronounced general pallor of the skin and mucous membranes); children rushing around, breathing with pronounced retracts of the pliable areas of the chest.
– IV degree – consciousness is absent, shallow breathing, its periodic stops, pale gray cold skin integuments; the child’s condition is extremely serious, requiring immediate medical attention.
First aid for false croup.
It is necessary to ensure the influx of fresh air into the room where the child is, give him a plentiful alkaline drink. Distracting procedures can be performed if the body temperature is normal. Put mustard plasters, make warm foot baths. It is necessary to perform inhalation of soda solution, infusion of chamomile, and vapors of potatoes cooked in their uniforms. At high temperatures, antipyretic drugs (infant paracetamol) are used. An expectorant is given inside.
When excited, use soothing herbal remedies: valerian, motherwort. Hospitalization is required. With false croup, antibacterial, antihistamines, glucocorticosteroid drugs are needed. In case of severe respiratory failure, a breathing tube is inserted into the trachea, if necessary, the child is transferred to mechanical ventilation.
Based on the book “Quick help in emergency situations”.