Approximate magnetic bearing, determining the approximate bearing without a compass, using a clock, ruler, using a paper compass.

You can determine the azimuth of a non-compass, but this will be an approximate value of the azimuth. To do this, in some way, using local signs, you need to determine the direction to the north on the terrain and notice an object or (if at night) a bright star. Then, using improvised means or by eye, measure the angle between the direction to the north and the direction to the object (landmark). This will be the approximate magnetic azimuth. 

Approximate magnetic bearing, determining the approximate bearing without a compass, using a clock, ruler, using a paper compass.

For an approximate measurement of azimuths, you can use the following methods. With the help of “hiking standards” – hands, palms, fingers, you can determine the magnetic azimuth. The azimuth can be determined using the clock..

, straw, etc.) and direct to a given subject, then against it you can read the number facing the subject, indicating hours and minutes. Knowing that one hour division of the dial is 30 degrees, and the minute division is 6 degrees, you can calculate the value of the measured angle (azimuth).

Using a centimeter ruler, if you hold it on your outstretched arm from your eyes at a distance of 60 cm, you can also determine the angle (azimuth). The fact is that each of its centimeter on the ground corresponds to an angle equal to 1 degree. So, if, for example, from the north direction to a given object is counted on a ruler of 12 cm, then this means that the measured angle (azimuth) is 12 degrees.

If you need to measure large angles using a ruler, then in this case, measure the angles in parts. The same method is applicable when using any objects whose sizes (in centimeters) are known to us in advance (matchbox, pencil, coin).

Paper compass, manufacturing and use for determining azimuth.

It’s very useful to have a paper compass on a hike. To do this, draw a circle on a piece of thick paper, divide it into central corners, respectively, of the compass, and stick it on the inside cover of a notebook, notepad, or even on one of the large sides of a matchbox. How to use it? Just like a watch. Zero to the north, and then count the azimuth in a given direction, using the numbers on the circle.

The method of eye measurement of magnetic azimuth on the ground.

And finally, the last method of eye measurement of magnetic azimuths on the ground. It lies in the fact that the measured angle is compared with the value of any known angle. So, for example, it is known that wooden and celluloid triangles have sharp angles of 30 and 60 degrees, and with the same legs, 45 degrees.

The angle between the thumbs and forefingers maximally spaced is approximately 90 degrees, between the index and middle fingers – 40-45 degrees. Comparing these angles with the measured, we approximately determine its value.

Based on the book “Map and Compass My Friends”.
Klimenko A.I..

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