The fighter’s nutrition must be high-calorie, rational, including all the necessary nutrients to maintain physical strength and endurance in the service. The ideal food for a soldier is fresh, hot food, but this is not always achievable. For feeding in the field, an individual ration of food (FPI) is provided, which has a different name for army rations. Despite its name, rations are used not only in the army, but also popular among those people who are often far from civilization – tourists, hunters, fishermen. They are commercially available, convenient to use and include products that make up the daily diet. One portion of a sukhpayka calculated for one soldier may be enough for two or three people on the march.
- Individual diet
- 2 Requirements for dry soldering
- 3Army dry ration composition
- 4 ration pack: composition, comparison
Dry ration varies in appearance and composition. So, there are rations, designed for one meal, or the number of receptions in one day. The rations are calculated individually for the energy consumption of military personnel in a specific situation. Depending on the terrain and the tasks of military service, the composition of dry rations may include more high-calorie foods. The higher the energy consumption of personnel in carrying out tasks, the higher the calorie content of the dry must be.
Despite some differences in composition, the army ration for all military personnel is balanced by the daily standard content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. The individual diet is constantly being improved, it is undergoing various tests and studies. However, according to Russian standards, the continuous use of an individual diet should not be more than seven days.
The average caloric value of an individual diet is 2500-3000 kcal, weight from 750 grams to almost two kilograms.
Dry soldering requirements
Despite the fact that the composition of the army IRP in Russia and foreign countries is different, the requirements for its composition and packaging are the same:
- The packaging of IRP should be hermetic, protect from any contamination.
- The composition of the IRP should include only products with a long shelf life. The content of products requiring special storage conditions is excluded.
- Products with easily digestible ingredients that are incapable of causing food allergies, disorders, etc. should be included.
- Products should be easy to prepare or have already been processed.
- The energy and nutritional value of the products of IRP should be the daily human need.
In addition to perishable products, it is prohibited to include alcohol, confectionery or cooking oil, cocoa, as well as containing a large amount of spices, preservatives, natural coffee in the composition of the PRP. It is also unacceptable to have fresh fruits and vegetables, and any products that have not passed clinical and laboratory tests.
Army dry ration composition
In addition to products, the composition of dry rations includes disposable appliances for eating, dishes, napkins, fire ignition and food warmers, and water disinfection tablets.
The army ration today includes ingredients depending on the type of IRP. The classification of the IRP is as follows:
- Individual diet daily.
There are seven species. The content is designed to be consumed in both cold and hot, and without the need for heat treatment or the use of water. Packaging for canned food does not consist of tin, but of a special polymer material that is resistant to various influences: high temperature, radiation, chemical or biological attacks. It is easier to carry, and a special loop allows you to attach several rations on the equipment for compact transportation. An individual daily ration is designed for daily meals with at least cold water in which concentrates can be diluted.
The casual IWP includes (data after changes made in 2014 for all seven types of composition):
- Wheat Flour Bread
- Barley porridge with beef
- Vegetable stew with meat
- Beef meat
- Beans with vegetables and meat or in tomato sauce
- Vegetable stew
- Cream Cheese Canned
- Liver paste
- Butter Mackerel
- Minced meat
- Concentrated fruit, berry tonic drink based on natural ingredients
- Chocolate paste
- Sweetened Condensed Milk
- Fruit stick (apricot, plum, apple)
- Black tea bags
- Sugar, also in bags
- Ground black pepper
- Portable Warmer
- Waterproof matches
- Disinfectants and paper napkins
- Tablets for filtering and disinfecting water
- Plastic spoon
- Canned food opener
Includes canned food, which includes stew, minced meat, canned fish, buckwheat porridge and rice with meat. Also included are the army breads, instant tea bags, sugar, coffee drink, natural fruit drink concentrate, tomato sauce, jam. Other contents include disinfecting tablets, antibacterial wipes, a portable heater (dry fuel), moisture and wind-proof matches, a spoon and a conservator.
These are the two main types of individual diets, but in addition to them there are also other types:
- Army dry ration for survival
- Disposable, intended for a single meal
- Donation for donors
- Airborne FPA for aircraft crews
- Preventive IRP for military personnel in conditions of various radiation and toxic substances contained in the air
And some others, intended for separate special divisions.
Each dry bag contains detailed instructions on the list of ingredients, as well as recommendations on how to heat food, use a portable heater and so on. All bulk foods, as well as matches, are packed in sealed bags of moisture-proof material.
Army ration: composition, comparison
The modern army ration is different from what it was in Soviet times. For comparison, we can take the data of 1941, 1980, 1991:
- The individual ration of food of 1941 for one Soviet soldier included: rye crackers at the rate of 600gr, millet porridge, and pea soup – mashed potatoes – concentrated; one of the following: half-smoked “Minsk” sausage, cheese, smoked, dried or dried fish, herring, canned meat. Also included was tea, salt, and granulated sugar.
- In 1980, the diet changed and made a set of products: canned meat with a volume of 250 grams, two cans of canned cereal (rice or buckwheat) with meat, a small package of rye crackers, a bag of tea and granulated sugar. The amount of sugar has increased compared to previous decades.
- In 1991, the army dry ration consisted of two sets – everyday and combat. Combat suhpaek consisted of four cans of canned stew, minced meat or pate, fish, and porridge – rice or buckwheat with pieces of meat. Also included were six packs of loaves or fresh cracker, two packets of tea with sugar, multivitamins, fruit jam, concentrated powder for a drink, coffee drink, granulated sugar, tomato sauce, tablets for filtering water, dry fuel, disposable food equipment, dishes. A plastic can opener, napkins and wind-resistant matches were also included.
The everyday package of individual nutrition in army conditions was designed for one day, including breakfast, lunch and dinner, in its composition is similar to the combat. Its only difference is lower calorie and mass. The rations were divided according to numbers, as well as modern ones, each of which differed in the range of food products. The only thing that has never changed is hygiene products, dishes, means for igniting and heating food. Thus, the other set included herring, stew with green peas, beans in a tomato, vegetable caviar, processed cheese.
Each of the countries abroad develops its own individual diet of individual nutrition. For example, in America, suhpaek consists of 24 types of menus to choose from, each of which contains a main dish. It is designed for only one meal. The American individual diet contains an average of 1200 calories and weighs between 500 and 700 grams. It includes instant drinks – tea, coffee, as well as a cold concentrated drink – lemonade. Unlike Russian dry rations, American contains confectionery – these are biscuits, muffins, sweets, cookies. To heat products, the American dry bag contains a special package with a flameless chemical heater. To bring it into action, it is necessary to pour a small amount of water inside and place food. Perhaps, if we evaluate it objectively, this is the only advantage in comparison with the Russian IRP. Confectionery products do not give long-lasting feelings of satiety, like cereals or meat, and lemonade does not quench thirst, like a fruit tonic made from natural ingredients. In addition, not a single soldier knows for sure which menu of the 24 species will go to him. In addition to sweets, the American suhpayka menu contains perishable and seasoning containing harmful substances, such as mayonnaise. Chewing gum is another product that is not included in the Russian RP, but contained in the US. It is not known what caused the content of this product in the suhpayka, this can only be explained by the peculiarities of the mentality.