To learn how to correctly assess the degree of freshness of prints on various surfaces in winter and summer, you can practice before a planned trip to the forest: leave hand or foot prints in the evening, and in the morning evaluate their condition and external signs under certain weather conditions or snow conditions.
The footprint of the snow can also determine the direction of movement of the animal. For such large animals as a bear, it is not difficult to do this: the front edge of the trail will look steeper than the rear one. Thus, the bear moves in the direction in which it indicates the deeper edge of its imprint on the snow.
The fact that there is a bear den nearby can be recognized by the following characteristic features: broken spruce branches, torn moss or blueberry twigs (their animal uses for laying the litter inside the den). Usually noticeable hole for entering the den itself: the snow at its edges is different yellowish tint. The hole is usually directed to the south side.
The trail of a polar bear differs from the imprint of a brown one. It is characterized by the presence of a pattern of fingertips and a print from the claws. The outline of his paws is neater, as they are less callused than that of a brown bear. The hind legs of a polar bear leave fingerprints in the snow with fur marks: it resembles the stripes left by a broom in the snow, especially if it is loose.
Looks like a bear track: other features
In addition to the paw print, bearish marks can be recognized by other features. So, after a long hibernation, in spring, awakened animals ravage the anthills in search of food, disintegrating rotten stumps, gathering the tops of thin aspens into one armful. An anthill ruined by a bear can be easily distinguished from traces of feeding grouse, wood grouse or woodpecker. The bear blows the top of the nest about three-quarters, scattering it around the surrounding area of one or two meters. In the second case, the birds feed on an anthill, digging shallow holes on the side of it or making one or two narrow, long tunnels leading to the middle of the anthill. In the fall, you can see a lot of broken branches on the trees: thus, clumsy trying to get to the fruits of trees. At the same time, there are often other noticeable marks on the trees: scratches, narrow strips of felled bark, abrasions, wool residue, scuffing. You can find out signs that bear cubs climbed trees, by leaving four deep, oblique strips left on the tree bark, since the fifth finger is not involved. The direction of the bands with the top down.
In summer, the bear trail can be identified by crushed stalks and leaves of plants, which then dry out a little and change their color, thus, it becomes very noticeable against the background of the rest of the ground.
Most accurately help determine the trace of the bear pattern, taken from the literature, with which you want to compare the real imprint on the snow or on the ground. This example will help to establish the ownership of a particular animal, its age, state, direction of movement, as well as the duration of passage through the forest.