A bonfire for cooking should be smaller and more compact for heating and spending the night. A fire for cooking should produce a lot of heat or fire, depending on the need for cooking.
Bonfire for cooking in the mountains, on rocky soil and in the steppe.
In the mountains, on stony soil and the like, it is necessary to lay a rectangular hearth out of stones, leaving a hole on the windward side for air flow and fuel supply. In the steppe, the same hearth can be made of chopped pieces of turf in the form of a brick..
Bonfire for cooking in the form of a trench.
Dig a trench outbreak, a size slightly larger than the size, for example, an animal carcass. Or one bookmark of skewers with meat, lard, fish, bread and the like. That is, the upper perimeter (size) of the hearth is determined in accordance with the volume of food that is planned to be cooked at a time. The depth of the trench is about 30 cm. Stones or a thick layer of clay are firmly laid at the bottom of the hearth. If the fire goes out, the stones (clay) will remain hot enough to continue cooking or quickly rekindle the fire.
On two slingshots set a skewer for roasting meat on coals. Or install a thick crossbar for the pot. Install two crossbars on four slingshots. Instead of these slingshots, you can lay stones (turf, logs) along the long sides of the hearth trench — you will get a barbecue for barbecue. It is better to cook food on charcoal or on low heat. As the heat weakens, slingshots must be deepened in a timely manner into the ground, thereby lowering the food to the desired distance from the coals.
It is always advisable to have a working supply of charcoal. For this, you can either lengthen the trench of the main hearth by half, or dig a small depression near it and burn wood there to obtain the required amount of these coals. And then add them to the hearth as needed. Charcoal can be stored for future use.
Why do we need fresh coals, as they are formed, to be removed from the bonfire in a timely manner and immediately covered with moist soil so as to stop access to air. When the coals die out completely, they need to be stored close to the main source. Such coal flames up quickly and allows you to cook food without annoying interruptions until necessary..
Bonfire for cooking in an earthen slope or embankment.
In the protruding part of a dense earthen slope or embankment, on the leeward side, dig a recess-chamber for a fire, like a hole. Depth approximately 45 cm. Make a chimney. From the outside, from top to bottom, with the help of a pointed stick, make and expand the through hole.
Remove crumbling earth from the fire chamber and make a fire in it. Bake food inside the chamber. In strong winds, cover the opening in the chamber with any suitable object.
Based on the book “Survival beyond the threshold of civilization”.