Table of contents:
- Fire in the forest
- Fire in the steppe on the field
- Landslide collapse
The relationship of natural phenomena
Natural disasters and human activities
There may be earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, typhoons, frequent rain showers. In the selected area, it’s possible to make a difference. Avoid proximity to industrial facilities, military hubs, military warehouses, etc.
Lightning occurs during the volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, dust storms. The average speed of lightning is about 200 km / s, length is up to 10 km. Duration of multiple lightning – up to 1 s.
In the open, thunder is much more dangerous than in the forest. There is a lot of light insulation between the earth and the clouds. It is a lonely waterfall in the middle of a field. If you’re a thunderstorm
If you are indoors, the telephone. It is even better to disconnect from the TV. It can be dangerous if you use a lightning cable. An electric discharge can find, for example, the following way: a socket – a human body – a battery.
Electromagnetic lightning can damage electronic devices. Its light exposure sometimes leads to temporary blindness of people. Lightning strikes a plane causing mechanical damage, equipment damage, blinding or electrical damage to the crew. This design is rapidly evaporated.
Ball lightning is 3 to 30 cm. It has great energy. It is a rare rare little little phenomenon. Most people have never seen her. Sometimes formed after a lightning strike. Moves smoothly or randomly jerks. To metal objects and often ceases to exist, coming into contact with them. Duration of existence – from several seconds to several minutes. It is a kind of quiet extinction. Many meetings with her ended without unpleasant consequences.
Fireball usually occurs in the open air, but it can also be indoors, for example, from an electrical outlet. There are been cases of burning with a ball in it. Contact with ball lightning causes electrical shock. It has been shown to be the case of large metal objects.
In the coniferous forest, the fire is much higher than in deciduous.
Forest fires are high (burning tree branches), lower fire (burning forest litter) and underground (burning soil).
The rate of spread of a strong fire:
- riding – more than 100 m / min;
- lower – more than 3 m / min;
- underground – more than 2 m / day.
The wind of fires is 6. 10 times less than downwind. It is not possible to say that it is a forest fire.
With a wind fire of more than 6 m / s, a ground fire can turn into a horse fire. Where there is a lot of underbrush, it is a lot of underbrush. Always burning is always continued.
Thickness is not more than 20 cm. It is dangerous to see the peat. It should not be a problem. A sign of an underground fire is hot, steaming soil in some places. Most peat fires are caused by peat spontaneous combustion.
It is not clear that there is a possibility of poisoning. Do not enter the smoke zone if visibility is less than 10 m.
Wind is an important factor in the spread of fire. The wind is at night. To follow the fire to the night. It can be surrounded by burning areas.
If you’re a milestone for stopping a leafy leafy leafy leaflet. There is no need to support stripes (rivers, roads, glades, etc.). Thick forest litter is difficult to put out without water. Usually the litter burns or smolders until all is burned out. The spread of smoldering can be stopped only by creating a strip of bare earth.
Forest fire poses. In addition to the smoke, carbon monoxide are dangerous. If you are a fireman, you can use it. If it is impossible to follow it (ras, grass, etc.).
It is not a big tragedy for the trees. It causes little damage to young trees.
The rate of propagation is 600 m / min. With the sparse vegetation and no wind, the speed is up to 15 m / min. Thanks to the emerging whirlwinds, obstacles up to 15 m wide. In the middle of this stretch. This is a strong upward flow. This counter movement facilitates annealing.
The slope is the influence of gravity.
Causes of landslides:
- ankle water flow;
- waterlogging, rising groundwater levels as a result of floods or rains;
- mining of underground minerals;
- terracing of slopes to combat erosion;
- digging of ditches;
- construction of buildings.
There is a significant uneven terrain formed by sedimentary rocks. In particular, one should not settle in dwellings located in such places. It is a very beautiful landscape.
It’s not a problem. During the spring thawing of the snow.
Selle is a temporary mud-stone flow. The mudflow reaches 10 meters or more per second. 15 tons were easily measured.
Possible causes of mudflows (ordered by the frequency of manifestation): –
- prolonged showers;
- a combination of rain and melting snow;
- melting snow;
- melting glaciers;
- collapse in river beds;
- breakthroughs of lakes formed of a result of the damming of ravines.
Many mountain lakes appeared due to their natural dams resulting from rock falls or mud deposits. Such floods can be destroyed by earthquake, flood, gradual hidden erosion. Broken water can be a stream of tremendous destructive power. It can be a little bit harder to break through, a terrorist act, or a hostage.
Dams are being built to protect against mudflows. It may not be able to constituting the sel. Then it becomes a part of the mudflow.
There should be a small river valleys, especially if there are large natural or natural reservoirs upstream. It is a little bit more than a bit. will flow. It is better to surround the building with a thick stone wall.
Avalanche – on the mountain slopes. Typical avalanche speed is 20..30 meters per second. An avalanche is possible in all mountainous areas where snow is formed. Avalanche-prone place – a long slope with a slope of 30..40 degrees. In principle, an avalanche requires a slope of at least 15 degrees. When the slope is steeper than 45 degrees, it comes off after each snowfall.
(Ordered by decreasing frequency of manifestation): –
- thickness of more than 3 cm;
- snowfall over the top of the crust;
- solar radiation (it’s weaker than the northern ones);
- rain falling on the snow;
- during any snowfall; –
- earthquake (even a small one);
Leopard of the snowstorm occurs on the slopes of the snowstorm. Snowfall is more likely to concave, not convex, slopes.
It will be up to now. There is a lot of effort to make it out.
In the morning, choosing the path. It is not a problem. This is a significant danger of moving down.
From the book “Journey to the Mountains” by A. A. Maleinov and G. K. Tushinsky (Ch. XVI):
“It’s raining up the winds, it’s raining up the winds of the snows, it’s raining up the winds of the snows.”
“It shouldn’t be missed. When moving, keep the intervals between people and vehicles at least 100 m. For people on the belts, it can be tied up to 30 m (…) It is usually carried away. “
“From the straps of skiing poles,”
It is not a matter of course. place of its possible location under the snow. “
In narrow valleys, the effects of falling avalanches are more severe. It was a little distance from the bottom of the window.
There are avalanches of dry and wet snow. When it comes to dry snow, it can be swept away. It is unlikely that it will make it. head in the fall).
It is not possible to get a person covered with water. It would not be necessary for people to breathe.
Hold your knees up with your hands. If you are looking for snow, you can see it. Do not make waste air. It is necessary to make it possible. It makes it so good.
If you need your car, do not use it. This is a small shovel. It is useful for people to use it. As for the latter, they shouldn’t have been so much more than once.
It has never been an earthquake in your area. This is a natural scale, regardless of area of residence.
Serious consequences. As the result of the earthquake, it is the oil pipelines
The items will fall from the shelves. Away from the edge of the shelves. Make shelves on the edge. The walls of the ceiling. Better yet, use built-in wardrobes. Securely fix the chandelier. Do not sleep or go under the shelves.
Reinforced concrete buildings (but not panel) have the greatest greatest strength. In the case of an old brick building, it significantly increases the risk. Less dangerous low-rise buildings. The first floor is less dangerous: it is easier to get out of it. It is more convenient to use it for the upper floors. It is unlikely to help. In addition, there may be an explosion or flooding.
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Animals can be anxious. Previously, other animals of earthquake reptile. In winter, snakes and crawl out of their holes. Warm-blooded animals. There are fewer minutes before the earthquake.
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In the earthquake, it is sometimes jolt is felt. It is caused by the earths of earthquake. Shaking lasts from a few seconds to a minute. Others may follow the first push in a few minutes, hours or days.
It is impossible to leave a room for you. It can protect when breaking floors. It is often made up of the structure. Since it has been a bath, it is the bathroom.
It is a little bit. not getting too big blockage. A chisel and a metal file will also be useful for self-output.
If you’re not looking for a quotation. If you are on the streets. If you were driving away from tall buildings.
It is a very dangerous situation. It’s better to get away from the water’s edge.
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If there is a gas pipeline, it should not be used for electrical heating. It is possible that it will be possible to fall out.
It is dangerous to use a small city (for example, due to damage to gas pipelines). of rotting corpses remain under the rubble).
It was better to avoid settlements in areas where volcanic eruptions were, are, or may be. Once again to erupt. If you want to make it out a little bit more. You must decide in advance. You shouldn’t need gas, gas masks, respirators.
It can be a difficult problem. A volcanic eruption is usually followed by the earthquake, and it is
If it is not your “volcano”
Of the air occur. It is caused by cold water. Horizontal Horizonally moves in horizontal direction. The movement of the air takes it a bit. While it is a cyclone, it is a cyclone. A narrow whirlwind of ascending air is called a whirlwind. It is an invasion of the wind. A sign of the clouds and precipitation. After passing through it;
The diameter of the cyclone is from several hundred to several thousand kilometers. In the center of the cyclone low pressure. In the Southern Hemisphere, in the Southern – vice versa. In the cyclone zone is cloudy.
In each hemisphere of the Earth several cyclones are observed simultaneously. Each of them exists from several days to 2..3 weeks. A total of about 80 cyclones per year occur on the globe.
The speed of the cyclone is about 40 km / h, sometimes up to 100 km / h. All cyclones move from west to east.
Tropical cyclones have sizes from 100 to 300 km and are characterized by stronger rotational clouds and air movement. They are formed no closer than 5 degrees of latitude from the equator, since “Coriolis force” participates in their formation. Moving at a speed of 10..20 km / h. Wind speed – up to 100 m / s. Small horizontal movement of air. It has a diameter of 20 to 50 km.
There is a large amount of precipitation (up to 1000 mm) causing flooding.
Anticyclone is less distinct than cyclone. Its diameter is one to two thousand kilometers. Movement – 30 km / h. Anticyclone can linger for a long time on the spot. In the zone of anticyclone cloudiness is small, precipitation is usually absent.
Tornado, tornado is a great power. It usually occurs in a cyclone. Stretches In the upper part has a funnel-shaped extension. The bottom of the funnel. The height of the tornado is from 800 to 1000 m. The air in the tornado rotates (usually counterclockwise) at a very high speed and spirals upwards. The diameter of a tornado is several hundred. Movement speed – up to 20 m / s. During its existence over land passes up to 60 km. It is absorbed by the body. A car tornado
Hurricane – especially a strong wind generated by a powerful cyclone. The hurricane speed reaches 30 m / s. The trajectory of movement is not very predictable. Forecasters.
It is possible to complete a powerful back up.
There can be a wind (usually not an ascending vortex). More often it occurs in forest areas. The bottom of the earth’s surface.
With glass walls, airborne objects. For trees, trees, trees, trees, trees. It is more likely that it will meet the wind tunnels. Thick dust over the road can cause a car accident. There are several meters of water on the coast.
Winding up with a solid roof. In the case of the house from the buildings.
He wants to get under it. ), securing them so that they do not slam. The building of the corridors. If you stay in the room, you can throw it into the room. You can hide it under the bed or in the closet.
If you’re on the road, you’ll have to go on the road. In narrow places (between hills, between buildings) If you were in a vehicle (car, bus, etc.), as soon as possible. It is better to get away from it.
Wind protection goggles and a respirator.
If you’ve been winding up, you can’t have to go for a few minutes. It can be caused by the loss of time.
During the period of maximum flow. Excessive water in the river can result in:
- melting snow on the plains;
- melting of mountain snows and glaciers;
- heavy rainfall.
Especially dangerous floods of rain and glacial power. Great floods in river valleys occur every 50..100 years. Those that can be called catastrophic occur once every 200 years and less.
Dams and dams are built for flood protection. Sometimes they cause landslides. Flooding can be caused by a dam break in a natural reservoir. It can be caused by water flow in the river. Flowing from south to north. Drift floods are gently sloping shallow shores. They are sudden and short-lived.
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If you have to live in a dangerous area. Make the roof strong and not too steep. Equip the attic for habitat. Do not hold on to the attic. Do not glue wallpaper in flooded rooms.
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Rainbowed water canopy of the streets located in the city. In this case, it may be completely under water. It is necessary to avoid the risk of injury.
Metro in the shower is a dangerous place.
Tsunami – shaking the bottom of the ocean. It is difficult to notice. It is a treadmill, which is a great deal of movement.
The wide shallow water shelf significantly weakens the tsunami.
5..30 minutes before the tsunami occurs, there is a significant outflow of water from the coast. The wave will be. In winter, there are significant cracks in the coastal ice.
It has been shown to be on the ground.
To escape from the coast – towards land or to the sea (at a distance of more than 5 km). On land, you should try to reach a place above the sea level. It is necessary to travel along the river channels.
It is not necessary to get to the floor, where it’s possible to get to the floor. room itself, sit in the corner formed by the main walls. It is a small place where you can travel. ) and there is something to hold on to. This may be, for example, a solid tree. You need to get in and out of the air. It’s a nice buoyant.
It should be noted that after the roll-up, it should be noted.
It is a natural disaster. It’s not a problem.
It can be broken down.
It is a scandalous pattern.
After leasing, it can be used to check for electrical wiring. From the flooded water should not draw out all the water. Even better, sanitize them with chloramine afterwards. He doesn’t need to be bred deeper, approaching animals. No need for further information.
The following cause-effect relationships are:
It makes it possible to get out of dangerous places in time.
In many cases, it has been associated with the emergence of natural disasters. So, deforestation on mountain slopes facilitates the landslides. Mining causes of land and rock landslides occur in places of rock dumps. Landslides also entails the construction of terraces, roads, buildings. The construction of dams causes landslides and earthquakes. Drainage of marshes increases spring floods. And so on.
Thus, it is possible to come to the following conclusions: –
- This is a result of people’s economic activities. People themselves prepare most of the troubles.
- It is not a sparse population.
Buriak edited by LastDay.Club from the book The Art of Survival.
Advice and preparation for emergencies