How many tiers in the woods?

Forest does not develop at random, it is possible to allocate tiers. Consider wood floors are not from the earth - from the bottom up and top down. The first tier are mature trees. They create under the canopy of their crowns special forest environment (it feel when the summer heat step into the cool shade of the forest). The second tier is formed of trees lower down, loose or shade-tolerant. Predominates in the forest stands, all other tiers - subordinate. The third tier is called the understory, there are growing shrubs. Fourth - shrubs. Fifth - the shrubs and grass. Sixth - living ground Read more [...]
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Hike with a minimum of equipment for the North Caucasus

In previous trips we have been trained skills mainly in one place, ie will not go. In the same exit we had a full campaign with a minimum of equipment. Weight of a backpack is limited to 5 kg. I weighed 8 kg 5 kg and 3 kg snaryagi camera with personal belongings. Well, traditionally we have not carried a tent and food. There were three of us again. Location - the North Caucasus. The time of year - the beginning of November. We went with a small group (7 persons), where everyone wanted to experience the hardships of varying degrees of survival. We had a triple 1 Bed, 1 mats, 1 hammock and Read more [...]
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Hieracium Bogen

Perennial 30-50 (80) cm tall, with numerous long ground creeping shoots, leaves, significantly decreases towards the top. Stem usually with scattered simple hairs up to 2.5 mm in length and a few stellate or without stellate hairs. Basal leaves glaucous, lanceolate, acute, sometimes spatulate, stem - usually including 1-3, concentrated in the lower half of the stem, with all the leaves, as well as the stem, covered with sparse long simple hairs sticking out, often with a black base. Baskets are usually numerous, small, 5-7 mm in length, collected in corymbose-paniculate inflorescence. Wrapper Read more [...]
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Hare

Large rabbit. Body length of adult animals ranged from 44 to 65 cm, occasionally up to 74 cm and weight of 2, 5 and 5, 5 lbs. The average size decreases from north-west to south-east. The largest Whites live in the north western and central Siberia, the smallest in the Trans-Baikal and in the Far East. In the painting there is a distinct seasonal dimorphism winter this hare pure white, except for the tips of the ears, which are black, back in the summer coloring reddish-brown, reddish-gray or gray, different between animals from different parts of the range. The head is usually slightly darker Read more [...]
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Milestones poisonous

Milestones toxic, or hemlock, often found in marshy banks of rivers, lakes, ponds, oxbows, in damp meadows. The plant has a vertical tuberous rhizome, within which there are separated by partitions airbags. Such a structure allows the roots do not confuse with milestones like him other umbrella. This is very important, as milestones, deadly poisonous plant. Milestone hollow stalk, leaves twice or thrice pinnate. Small white flowers are collected in inflorescence - cyme. Most poisonous part of the plant - the rhizome. But all other organs contain toxic substances, the main of which - tsikutotoksin. Read more [...]
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Gray groundhog — marmota baibacina kastsch. Reproduction

In Kyzylrae (Kazakh uplands) in females, produced by digging holes on 3 April (up to the first appearance of animals) have been up 23.5 embryos mm the other - on April 18 (in 10 days after the) they reached 77 mm (Afanas'ev, 1947). Therefore, females are fertilized after hibernation, but before leaving the holes, and it does not require for its explanation the presence of a latent stage, wrote about those authors. Immediately on leaving the marmot burrows were observed from their lively behavior, harassment by males than females. The male, mined from an unopened April 3 holes (along with Read more [...]
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Zmeegolovnik

Common names: liquor, honey cake. Zmeegolovnik Ruysha. Perennial herb up to 50 cm Leaves linear-lanceolate, sessile. Flowers in whorls, purple and azure. Blooms in June and July (cover photo). Grows in the Perm region in the dry meadows, forest edges, clearings, on limestone outcrops occasionally in the 2, 3, 5, Part 4 phytogeographical areas. Honey plant. In folk medicine herb collected during the flowering season. It contains the essential oil. The infusion is used for headaches, sore throat, stomach and intestinal diseases. Zmeegolovnik drooping. Fragrant perennial herb Read more [...]
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Garden purslane

Annual height of 10-30 cm Stem prostrate, prostrate or ascending, branched from the base, fleshy, naked. The leaves are alternate, upper - almost opposite, sessile, oblong-elliptical, oval or spatulate, obtuse, narrowed to the base, fleshy. The flowers are single or collected by 2-3, sitting in the ramifications of the stem or in leaf axils. Calyx lobes herbaceous with a blunt keel. Petals obovate, yellow. Fruit - ovate or rounded capsule, 5-8 mm long. Blooms in June-July, fruiting in July-August. Occurs in various parts of Europe and Asia. Common in Russia in the southern half of the European Read more [...]
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Fowling

Tightening the noose Tightening the noose, or the noose on the end of a long stick, a stick is an effective tool to remove the bird, find a perch on the lower branches. Note perches and nesting place - do not forget that bird droppings can help find them - and if they are within range, regularly come back at night, when there is enough light to see them. Start the loop at the bird and sharply tighten it while pulling down a bird.Hunting for waterfowl You can get close to potential prey, hiding in the water up to his neck and head camouflaged with reeds or other vegetation. Approach the nesting Read more [...]
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Stolen tree

The most common disease in the world - Riya malaria, fever. Millions of people suffer from it, especially in hot and humid tropical countries. Name of the disease comes from two Italian words: "mal" - "bad", "aria" - "air." But that's not a bad air, and in mosquitoes that infect human malaria. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in water, whether from the testes grow chinks - bloodworms - and then the mosquitoes. In moist, warm places a lot of mosquitoes, malaria raznosyaschih. Europeans who invaded tropical countries, the masses were dying of malaria. Only Read more [...]
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Fish-sostavnik rotary lobe

With such a combination of the opportunity to catch on "porolonku", using not only the wiring step, but a permanent (or pike perch often rush in pursuit of the bait). And to create additional vibration to the third eye of the sinker I suspended on a swivel petal from the spinner (№ 1), which rotates with a constant supply cable is not worse than trolling (by the way, I did it much earlier than in the magazines appeared similar development for jig-heads). But with speed wiring in the fall petal pressed to fish and stopped spinning, and I wanted to make sure that it can rotate continuously Read more [...]
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First ascent

first round. passage because-L complex of the terrain (threshold river canyon, pass, etc.), part of the route, and the route as a whole. Caving In P. make opening and exploring new cave or a new extension to the famous cave. The perfect tour. Group PA is regarded as a sport. achievement, in championships and competitions in T. P. participants encouraged premium points. For security to participants and group leaders who commit P, increased requirements. in particular the experience of overcoming the route of the same or greater complexity than expected at the site P. Read more [...]
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How to cook a frog on fire

One day, mad with terror, began to take place in the city at breakneck speed, you run away, and you find yourself alone in a remote taiga forest. Oh, the great forest, thank you, savior of many troubles! Have you got lost, whether to hide from the Chinese, who began his long-awaited military intervention, you have to get water, food, arrange accommodation, orient, start survive. Taiga, thick, huge, nykatsya - no one will find. You do not have anything, and want to eat more and more, what to do? I'll be happy, my friend, there is a solution! And it is called, as you already guessed by Read more [...]
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Les Stroud: Science survive — Canadas Forests

In the documentary series Science Survive Les Stroud will travel the world and try to survive alone in the most extreme places on the planet, without food, without water and without crew for seven days. Each series Les Stroud shoots himself personally. His equipment consists of clothes, a set of video equipment, harmonica, multitool, and usually everyday objects, which can be a person, depending on the scenario of a particular episode. For security purposes, Stroud has a satellite telephone. However, Wood complained that during the filming of several series of phone did not work and he remained Read more [...]
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Everything a little. More about cooking

Until now, it was about the individual gifts of taiga and how to use them. But part of the taiga and trophies can be used in the complex, in the most appropriate combinations. These combinations are pronounced seasonal nature, they must conform to a particular period in the life of nature. In addition, the preparation of specific foods to keep in mind that the better the match. Of these combinations, rather than the usual cooking recipes and will talk. Some components of food are pronounced "main" flavor, which should fetch out, emphasizes the other ingredients. For example, Read more [...]
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European dodder

Annual plant with red or reddish stems up to 2.5 mm. The flowers are small (2-3 mm), pink or pinkish-white, on short stalks, gathered in spherical balls with a diameter of 1.5 cm, with small bracts. Obconical cup, with four (sometimes five) shirokotreugolnymi obtuse lobes. Corolla calyx, with 4-5 oval-ovate straight blades, with inward curved tip; scales are small, with few fringe is at the top, do not reach the middle of the corolla tube. Columns of two, they are divergent, filiform, with a thread-like stigmas. Fruit-flattened-spherical capsule, dehiscing across lid, with four seeds. Blooms Read more [...]
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Rhode SAMBUCUS L. — Elder.

Herbaceous perennials, shrubs, trees up to 10 m high. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic. Contain triterpenoids, iridoids, phytosterols, flavonoids (including anthocyanins) tsiklitoly, carbohydrates and karotnnoidy (No et al., 1996), phenolic and higher fatty acids, H efnry, higher alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons n established structure. Highlighted the essential oil, fatty oil, tannins. Found akalondy, coumarins, catechins, polysaccharides, grnglntseridy, vitamin C. Medicinal. Therapeutic action - analgesic - flowers (State registry. 2000), branches (complete), the leaves of S. Read more [...]
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Elfwort

Large perennial herb with a thick rhizome and numerous fleshy roots, coming from him. Stem straight, thick, 1-2.5 m tall, heavy foliage. The leaves are alternate, rough to the touch, the lower very large, elliptical, up to 50 cm and a width of 25 cm, with petioles, upper - smaller, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, sessile, amplexicaul. Flowers are yellow, gathered in baskets diameter of 6-8 cm, located on thick stalks at the ends of shoots and form a common racemose or corymbose inflorescence. Marginal flowers in baskets ligulate, female, median - tubular, bisexual. Fruits - rectangular brown Read more [...]
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Ecology of the beaver. Modern ecological situation

The existence of a beaver, as an active regulator of the hydrological regime, has always been closely connected with the environmental situation in the area and thus the economy of nature. On depletion of easily accessible, non-renewable natural resources and the need for immediate increased use of renewable resources and the theoretical solution to the vast range of environmental problems in the past two decades, more and more dedicated to scientific publications, including large. Note message X. Schindler (Schindler, 1979) that the depletion of natural resources, for example, in the U.S. is Read more [...]
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Ski tour. Instead of introducing

Distance themselves do not touch. One day one of the first campaigns, on a green slope, sun-drenched, I fell asleep. Light breeze blowing heat, and from the hours sunk into the memory of extraordinary sense of peace. A two hundred kilometers to the villages and roads.   But if a hundred kilometers to the shelter winter taiga, half frozen rivers, deep snow - a hundred miles of frost?...The trail skiing snow. The legs get stuck above the knees. Force enough for twenty paces. White fluffy element ...Am going away, skipping ahead to watch me. So it changes. It is, buried Read more [...]
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The Survival in the wild nature - how correctly to behave, it having appeared in an emergency situation. Ability to find a way out from any situation: to kindle a fire, to put traps, to prepare food, to arrange dwelling and a lodging for the night; to learn to knit knots, to clear water, to be guided by districts, correctly to choose equipment, a knife. Also you can download directories to tourists, encyclopedias survivals, video Bear Grills to Survive at any cost (Man vs. Wild).