Members of the Arctic and Antarctic expeditions to a year or more have to be in small, isolated groups. Certain autonomy compartment submarine leads to the relatively small group of the ship is divided into separate small groups of sailors. Currently, the space stations can simultaneously work two to six man. It is assumed that crew interplanetary spacecraft will consist of six - ten. When flying to Mars, the crew will be in conditions of forced isolation of the group for about three years.
From the history of scientific expeditions, wintering in the Arctic and Antarctic, long voyages on Read more [...]
In the world there is a huge number of plants that can be eaten at different times of the year and in different natural zones. The flora of the planet is so varied that die from starvation and lack of water a person in difficult extreme conditions in the forest, jungle, mountains and deserts, almost impossible. In different parts of the world and different climatic zones can always find a plant that will supply you with water, tasty and juicy fruits, vegetable bread, fats, sugar and milk.
But for this you need to know where, how and when to collect, how much and how to use it. The nutritional Read more [...]
The range of this bird is rather extensive. It lives in the Caucasus, the Volga delta, in Central Asia, in the south of Kazakhstan, and the Far East. Prefers riparian forests impassable, forests with undergrowth of thorny bushes and thick grass. Excellent feels reed crepes. Thickets dzhida, blackthorn, buckthorn are pheasant reliable protection from enemies and berries and fruits of these shrubs - excellent food.
Summer and fall in the diet of pheasant dominated plant foods - vegetative parts of plants, seeds, cultivated and wild grasses, weed seeds, fruits and berries. In addition, pheasants, Read more [...]
Herbaceous perennial aquatic plant, floating or prostrate stems of between 5 and 20 cm, eating small animals. Lobed leaves - a tripartite repeatedly forked lobes are hollow colorless catching bubbles with arcuate feathery bristles pointing towards the ventral side of the bubble. Leaf lobes narrowly linear, entire or with 1-2 teeth on the edges. The flowers are small, clustered in few-flowered inflorescences loose brush. Peduncles straight, with 2-4 scalelike leaves. Pedicels up to 1 mm in length, at the base with two small broadly membranous bracts. Calyx bilabiate, with rounded lobes. Corolla Read more [...]
Have you ever been in places where no man has gone before? Where in the taiga forest raspberry bushes sneaking through the brush full Bruin Bear. He had never heard the sound of shots. He does not know the smell of a man, he no fear in front of a stranger. Covert - his home. But his house is not beskraen. For the highest mountain there is a world of which he does not even know. There are noisy machines humming engines, fly planes and more people live. The same man, with the advent of which everything has changed and not for the better.
Over the taiga sometimes there's some red clouds. Read more [...]
It is believed that tailed marmot Kazakhstan dwells in the Kyrgyz and Talas Alatau (Kuznetsov, 1948, etc.), but more specific information is only for the latter. By LM Shulpina (1948), the groundhog is widely distributed in the Aksu-Zhabagly, at the junction of the Talas Alatau Ugam ridge. However, in his years (1933-1935 gg.) Marmots there were extremely rare, as they are few in number and are now (1961 -1962 years. - Our observations). According to survey data (Shul'pin, 1948), marmots in the reserve were considered numerous in 1926, they allegedly lived everywhere and large settlements, Read more [...]
When a person is not alone, and in the group, he has a carefree attitude, reduced alertness. So forget about security measures or with them not punctual, not sequentially. This contributes to laziness. Do not assume that your security at the camp will provide others. When you fall into the clutches of the bear, the idea that the fault is not you - a bad consolation. Your complacency is dangerous not only for you but also for satellites - for your beloved family and friends.
To reduce the chance of an accident, it is necessary that each member of the expedition or tour group was introduced Read more [...]
If the spore plants - mosses, ferns, horsetails, club mosses, and fungi - found in the open, it indicates that there has recently been a forest.
Before we delve into the forest, we must always pay attention to the sun, remember which side it is located. If the sun is on the right when you exit in the same direction of the forest need to place it on the left.At a delay of over an hour in the woods, remember that due to the rotation of the Earth sun seems to have shifted to the right. Therefore, when the output from the forest to the sun, if we use it as a guide, we have an additional dodge left Read more [...]
Everyone understands that seriously modify the well-known, much less to create and produce a new, worthwhile bait, only by a few. From a variety of homemade, in general, quite good spinners like to highlight two designs for pike at depth. I will not make a detailed analysis of the pros and cons of these structures, I can only say one thing: both spinners well-proven in the pike. The one and a serious lack of spinners: progress in the game crashing lobe (not sticky, and it failed) and a partial loss of the game when you touch the ground. The most striking, and perhaps the only person who managed Read more [...]
Currently, the number of brown bears is difficult to determine. Calculations carried out with the use of data for the procurement of large areas as well as in selected areas, unacceptable in view of the clear incompatibility produced (including the licenses) bears particular, close to a good indicator of their numbers in the land. Enough to pay attention to a number of factors, which in our time is not only the distribution of the bears at the stations, and access to them for hunters.
In rural areas, indigenous people who knows the land becomes. Less widespread due to urbanization. The vast Read more [...]
Do not even know where to insert this Glaucus - whether to spice the place where she was, or the chapter on ornamental plants. Just like in the cartoon Cheburashka - the Zoo is not taken, "do not know, where will it sit." A plant is a plant with the same bases can and flower beds and the beds. Because not specialists often have to deal with this kind of a decorative kind - love-in-a-mist (Nigella damascena), put all the love-in the chapter on food with a flower bed. Nigella - Latin name. It comes from the Latin Niger - black (think black - too black) and is its diminutive, just like Read more [...]
I went down to the shore and thought about the fire.
The dream of the fact that about a cozy tent will pop cheerful fire, there was only a dream. I had no matches. I did not have a magnifying glass, which is now so would be useful. I did not have anything good, except for a small pocketknife and two pins, pinned to the valve jacket pocket.
Of course, you can dry the board of the boxes in the sun, vystrugat few sticks and a fire as did the ancients put a dry stick on a dry board and turn your palms up as long as at the end of the stick appears glowing ember. Then put this charcoal to dry grass Read more [...]
In a critical situation in the Arctic food use meat seals and polar bears, which are found everywhere. However, the hunt for them - not such a simple matter.
On the Arctic islands, where are "rookeries" to people in distress, do not have to suffer from hunger. At their disposal will always be plenty of poultry meat and eggs.Since nests are located on the eaves of the cliffs, collecting eggs is a challenge. For security purposes, to collect birds' eggs have two people. One of them is going down on the nesting ledge and holding on to the top rope reinforced, collect eggs, and Read more [...]
Fish bleak - one of the most common species of fish of the carp family. This fish is well caught in the winter, because it is not afraid of external noise and comes close to the ice edge. Almost all winter bleak kept in small schools by the end of winter, they gather at the mouths of rivers and small bays. During this period of time, usually a big catch for fishermen, which reaches 10 kg.
Bleak can catch on floats, fishing tackle and gear combination. In the winter dry suits bait you want to throw every 15-20 min., As it gradually swells, becomes heavy and sinks to the bottom. The bait must Read more [...]
Kolya route group. Right bank Voronovki up. Wade through flowing from the northwest to the creek. The rise in the area height 283,5 - Voronovskaya mountains. If the path is not found, go to the fork of the valley Voronovki creeks in 16-73 square and along the west to the top. Climbing to Voronovskaya. At the top left a note. Further descent to the north and exit to the trail that runs past the Bald Mountain to Lake ease. And further to the rendezvous point at the southern end of Lake of the Free, where it implies Sakmara river.
If the path is not found, then walk down the hill to the east Read more [...]
The study of this section begins with an introduction to the major causes of situations of human existence in the autonomous environment. Some of them are due to take place in the natural environment of disasters. Should pay attention to these causes, talk about them, about the possibility of a stand-alone situations of human existence in the natural environment as a result of such disasters.
The second group of cases the autonomous existence of man in the environment occurs suddenly, is characterized by surprise. Refers to the following situation.
1. Serious illness of a person in Read more [...]